PDF Archive

Easily share your PDF documents with your contacts, on the Web and Social Networks.

Share a file Manage my documents Convert Recover PDF Search Help Contact



Eng Lec 4 8.pdf


Preview of PDF document eng-lec-4-8.pdf

Page 1 2 34528

Text preview


,

I

t
l

I
l

The verb be is nranifested in eight forms: be, is, am,
are. v)as. were, been. and heing. These verbs precede
nouns or adiectives in a sentence, which become
predicate nouns and predicate adjectives similar to
those that function ivith a linking verb. They can
also be follorved by an adverb of place, which is
sometimes referred to as a predicate adverb.
For example:
"Her daughter r.r,ai'a writing tutor."
"The singers v)ere very nervous."
"My house i r down the street."

:

t

;

j

l
I
I
:

-l

rooml.

clon't v;ant to [clean tny

[clean his room],
(Let, Make, Have, Get, HelP)
The English verbs let, make, haven get, and help are
called causative verbs because they cause something
else to lrappen. Here are some specific examples of
how causative verbs work in English sentences.

structuree::
Gramnratical
LjfallllIallCa I sLruc[ul

I

I

Clean )'our room.'

connects a subject with its
complenrent. These verbs are often called co;rular

A linking verb

verbs or copulas.
Most linking verhs are fornrs of the verb be.
She is my sister.
We are happ"v.
They were shocked to hear the news.
A few other verbs related to the five senses are also
considered as linking verbs. Examples are: look,
feel, sound, tasteo smell. Some stative verbs are also
considered as copular verbs. Exarnples are: appear,
seem, become, grow, turn, prove and remain.
Note that a linking verb should be followed by a
noun or an ad.iective.
Students sonretinres incorrectly use adverbs after
linking verbs. This is a mistake.
She looked happv. (NOT She looked happily.)
The Jish .srnell.s au,fttl. (NOT The Jish smells
awfully.) I feel had" (NOT I feel badl.v.)

In grammar, a pro-verb is a word or phrase that
stands in place of a verb (for exarriple, in order that
the verb not need to be repeated). It does for a verb
what the ntore widely known pronoLln does for a
noun. The following are some examples of tliese

*

LET + PERSONiTHING + VERB:(base form)

Exarnples:

*
t

I don't let my kids watch violent movies.
Mary's father won't let her adopt a puppy because
he's allergic to dogs.
t Our boss doeso?t iet us eat lunch at our desks; we
have to eat in the cafeteria.
* Oops! I wasn't paying attention while cooking. and
I let the food.burn.
.i. Don't let the adverlising expenses surpass $1000.
Remember: The past tense of let is also let; there is no
change!

Note: The verbs allow and permit are more formal ways
to say "let." However, with allow and permit, we use to

* verb:

U[[!E

force or require someone to take an action

Grammatical structure:

neighbor's window,
his parents made him PaY for it.
loved
sci-fi
ex-boyfriend
and made me watch every episode of his favorite show'
papers, l'recause the first drafts were not acceptable.

must

LtSe 16

+ verb.

kinds of pro-verb:
"Require" often implies that there is a rule.

won't [do it].
'ts T likepie, as does he fiike pieJ.
'/- Why did yott break the.iar?
[break the.icrr].

-He

different

direction'

"Force" often implies violence' threats,

made me

parkl.

strong pre.\.sure

E[l[E

extremely

give someone else the responsibility to do

something
Grammatical structure

:

Since a to-infinitive is.iust the particle lo plus a bare

infinitive. and a bare infinitive can be elided, the
particle lo doubles as a pro-verb for a to-infinitive:

or

Exarnples of grammatical structure #1: