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OC Penticton Wine Chemistry (7Nov06) .pdf



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THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Current Wine Chemistry Research at
The University of British Columbia – Okanagan
Sierra Rayne and Nigel Eggers
Chemistry, Earth & Environmental Sciences
The University of British Columbia at Okanagan
Contact: sierra.rayne@ubc.ca
Presentation available at: http://people.ok.ubc.ca/neggers/
1

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Overview of the Okanagan Valley Wine Region


BC Wine Institute has designated 5
wine sub-regions:
1. Kelowna:
• Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Pinot
Blanc, Riesling, and Chardonnay
2. Penticton/Naramata:
• Pinot Noir, Pinot Gris, Pinot
Blanc, Chardonnay, and Merlot
3. Okanagan Falls:
• Riesling, Gewurztraminer, and
Pinot Noir
4. Oliver/Golden Mile:
• Merlot, Chardonnay, and
Gewurztraminer
5. Black Sage/Osoyoos:
• Bordeaux varieties, Chardonnay,
and Syrah

1000 –

1200 –

1500 –
Degree Days

2

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA



Processed Crop (tons)



BC VQA (Vintner’s Quality Alliance) wine
sales have increased >132% since 2001
Grape production has tripled since 1992
20000
15000

BC VQA Sales (millions $)

Growth of the Okanagan Valley Wine Industry
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

10000
5000

2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992

0

3

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Processed Crop (tons)



BC VQA (Vintner’s Quality Alliance) wine
sales have increased >132% since 2001
Grape production has tripled since 1992
20000
15000

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

Riesling

10000

Gewurztraminer
White



BC VQA Sales (millions $)

Growth of the Okanagan Valley Wine Industry

5000

Pinot Gris

2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
2000
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992

0

Pinot Blanc

Chardonnay
Syrah




Merlot and Chardonnay dominant
varieties grown
Reds and whites at about equal
tonnages in 2005 (~7500 tons each)

Red

Cab. Franc
Pinot Noir
Cab. Sauvignon
Merlot
0

500

1000

1500 2000
Tonnage

2500

3000
4

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Efforts at UBC-Okanagan Concentrated
Around Phenols in Grapes and Wines


Three major projects:
1.
2.
3.

Phenols from grapes exposed to forest fire smoke
Volatile phenols derived from Brettanomyces yeasts in barreled and
finished wines
Effects of micro-oxygenation on polyphenol contents in red and
white wines

5

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

What Are Grapes Made Of ?:
An Overview…
The weight % of grape clusters:

Component

Range (%)

Average (%)

Water

75-85

79

Sugars

17-25

20

Organic acids

0.4-1.2

0.6

Inorganic compounds

0.15-0.30

0.2

Others

0.3-1.0

0.5

Component

Range (%)

Average (%)

Juice

70-80

75

Skins

10-20

16

Stems

2-6

5

Seeds

0-5

4

The weight % of grape juice:

6

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

What Are Grapes Made Of ?:
An Overview…
The weight % of grape clusters:

Component

Range (%)

Average (%)

Water

75-85

79

Sugars

17-25

20

Organic acids

0.4-1.2

0.6

Inorganic compounds

0.15-0.30

0.2

Others

0.3-1.0

0.5



Component

Range (%)

Average (%)

Juice

70-80

75

Skins

10-20

16

Stems

2-6

5

Seeds

0-5

4

The weight % of grape juice:

So … grapes are mainly water in ‘juice form’, but it is the minor components
that make the wine what it is!
What our group is presently
– Sugars → alcohol (and sweetness)
interested in at UBC-O
– Organic acids/Others → flavor, aroma, texture, color, …
7

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Phenols in Grapes and Wine:
What Are They and Where Do They Reside?


After carbohydrates and acids, phenols are most abundant group in grapes:
– Amounts of phenols depend on grape variety and climate
– Average berry content is ~4 g/kg in white varieties, and ~5.5 g/kg in reds

8

THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA

Phenols in Grapes and Wine:
What Are They and Where Do They Reside?
After carbohydrates and acids, phenols are most abundant group in grapes:
– Amounts of phenols depend on grape variety and climate
– Average berry content is ~4 g/kg in white varieties, and ~5.5 g/kg in reds



Distribution of phenols in the grape:
– ~65% in the seed
– ~30% in the skins Typical total phenolic distribution
in fresh ripe grape berries
– ~4-5% in the juice
Phenols (g/kg of berries)



3

Red
White

2
1
0

Skins

Juice
Berry part

Seeds

9


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