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Rayne Stilbene Project Presentation 11Sept08 (7Sept08) .pdf

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Grapevines (Vitis spp.) as Components of the
North American Prairie Biomass Economy:
High-Value Phytochemicals, Platform Chemicals, and Bioenergy
Sierra Rayne, Ph.D., P.Chem.
Department of Chemistry
Richardson College for the Environment
University of Winnipeg
11 September 2008


The environmental conscience driver
Source: 2001 IPCC report. Chart shows data from Mann et al. 1999

Source: IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007 (AR4) (http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm)


The economic/security drivers

Source: T. Boone Pickens (http://www.pickensplan.com/)

Source: ABC News (http://abcnews.go.com/International/popup?id=1566549)

Source: T. Boone Pickens (http://www.pickensplan.com/)

Source: T. Boone Pickens (http://www.pickensplan.com/)

Source: T. Boone Pickens (http://www.pickensplan.com/)


The response: A return to the biomass economy

Source: Clark, "Green chemistry for the second generation biorefinery sustainable chemical manufacturing based on biomass", J Chem Technol
Biotechnol, 2007

Source: Clark, "Green chemistry: Today
and tomorrow", Green Chem, 2006


A diversity of bioproducts possible

Source: Ragauskas et al., "The path forward for biofuels and biomaterials", Science, 2007

Source: Kamm and Kamm, "Principles of biorefineries", Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2004


Need distributed biorefineries with local sources

Source: Ceres, “The promise of dedicated energy crops”, March 27, 2008.


Canada’s plans

Source: Human Activity and the Environment: Annual Statistics 2007 and 2008

Source: Layzell, BIOCAP Canada Foundation, "Towards a sustainable bioeconomy"


The perfect bioenergy crop
High biomass: increased
growth rate, photosynthetic
efficiency, delayed flowering

Rapid and
cost-effective propagation

Improved composition &
structure: higher fuel
yield per ton

Stand establishment: cold
germination, cold growth

Disease and pest resistance

Perennial: multi-year crop,
efficient nutrient use, high
fossil energy ratio

Optimized architecture:
dense planting, no lodging,
easier harvest
Deep roots: drought
tolerance, nutrient uptake,
carbon sequestration
Salt, pH and Aluminum
Source: Ceres, “The promise of dedicated energy crops”, March 27, 2008

+ high-value ‘front-end’ extractables


Awakenings in 80s: Need a new chemical perspective

Source: Clark, "Green chemistry: Challenges and opportunities", Green Chem, 1999


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