PDF Archive

Easily share your PDF documents with your contacts, on the Web and Social Networks.

Share a file Manage my documents Convert Recover PDF Search Help Contact



MSc Dissertation Work Final Print .pdf


Original filename: MSc_Dissertation_Work_Final_Print.pdf
Title: 69EG4218 DISSERTATION FOR MSc
Author: Derek Reeve (scomder)

This PDF 1.5 document has been generated by Microsoft® Office Word 2007, and has been sent on pdf-archive.com on 04/01/2016 at 11:07, from IP address 197.210.x.x. The current document download page has been viewed 691 times.
File size: 1.8 MB (103 pages).
Privacy: public file




Download original PDF file









Document preview


Development of a Cost-Effective Real Time Location
System (RTLS) for Monitoring and Emergency
Response in Nigeria

ODUWARE Osahon Godwin

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Science in GIS, University of Portsmouth

Department of Geography
University of Portsmouth

December 2010

i

Declaration of Originality

This is to certify that the thesis is entirely my own and not of any other
person, unless explicitly acknowledged (including citation of published and
unpublished sources). The thesis has not previously been submitted in any
form to the University of Portsmouth or to any other institution for
assessment for any other purpose.

Signed _________________________________________________

Date ___________________________________________________

ii

Dedication

This thesis is dedicated to the Almighty God, who was a great source of
inspiration.

iii

Acknowledgement

I would like to thank my supervisors, Prof. Richard Healey and Dr. Kate
Jones, for their suggestions and guidance throughout this work. It would have
been next to impossible to write this thesis without their help and guidance.
Also, I would like to thank my lecturers, Dr. Dominic Fontana, Dr. Peter
Collier, Dr. Alastair Pearson, Dr. Brian Baily, and Mr. Martin Schaefer, for
the knowledge they imparted unto me throughout the programme.
Furthermore, I would like to thank Mr. Paul Carter for his great assistance in
the laboratory, and my colleagues (Terence Mothers, Bruno Lainjo, Monica
Defilippi, Kehinde Famuditi, George Olasunkanmi, Adekunle Gbagba,
Ayodele Tunde-Gafar) for their ideas and encouragement throughout the
programme.
In addition, my profound gratitude goes to my parents (Mr. P. I. Oduware and
Mrs. R. O. Oduware), my siblings (Emmanuel, Ohenhen, and Ifueko), my
sister- in-law (Damilola), and other members of my family, for their
unrelenting support throughout the programme. Also, I would like to thank
my flatmates (Ravi Vasava, Ahmed Al- hebshi, Dijin Khumar, and Brice
Mbonde), and my friends (Taiye Obadiah, Soni Paget, Charles Ohikhuai,
Enonre Eboh, Christopher Idogei, Tonia Ugbade, and Racheal Oni) for their
encouragement throughout the programme.
Finally, I offer my regards to all those who supported me in any respect
during this work and throughout the programme.

iv

Table of Contents
Declaration of Originality ........................................................................................ ii
Dedication ............................................................................................................... iii
Acknowledgement................................................................................................... iv
Table of Contents ..................................................................................................... v
List of Figures ....................................................................................................... viii
Abstract .................................................................................................................... x
CHAPTER ONE .......................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................... 1
1.1

Study Background ................................................................................... 4

1.2

Study Area ................................................................................................ 5

1.3

Aim and Objectives .................................................................................. 7

CHAPTER TWO.......................................................................................................... 9
LITERATURE REVIEW......................................................................................... 9
2.1

Introduction .............................................................................................. 9

2.2

Real-Time Location System (RTLS) .................................................... 10

2.3

Digital Map Data Accuracy and Accessibility ..................................... 11

2.4

Global Positioning System (GPS) Accuracy ........................................ 13

2.5

Map-Matching ........................................................................................ 17

2.6

Geocoding ............................................................................................... 24

2.7

K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) Search .................................................. 26

2.8

Summary................................................................................................. 29

CHAPTER THREE.................................................................................................... 30
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ........................................................................... 30
3.1

Development Approach ......................................................................... 33

3.2

Geocoding Emergency Location Addresses to Geographic

Coordinates ....................................................................................................... 34
3.3

Locating the Real-time Position of Emergency vehicles to a

High level of Accuracy using Low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS)
devices................................................................................................................ 35

v

3.4

Identifying the Closest available Emergency vehicle to an

Emergency location .......................................................................................... 36
3.5

Providing Routing Information for Eme rgency locations to

Emergency vehicles .......................................................................................... 38
3.6

Analysis of Emergency history ............................................................. 38

3.7

System Requirement .............................................................................. 38

3.8

Summary................................................................................................. 39

CHAPTER FOUR ...................................................................................................... 41
SYSTEM DESIGN ................................................................................................ 41
4.1

Database Design ..................................................................................... 42

4.2

The Web Server Design ......................................................................... 48

4.3

The Mobile Client Design ...................................................................... 49

4.4

Summary................................................................................................. 50

CHAPTER FIVE........................................................................................................ 51
IMPLEMENTATION ............................................................................................ 51
5.1

The Database Implementation .............................................................. 51

5.2

The Web Server Implementation ......................................................... 56

5.3

The Mobile Client Imple mentation ...................................................... 60

5.4

Summary................................................................................................. 61

CHAPTER SIX .......................................................................................................... 62
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ............................................................................ 62
6.1

Map Accuracy ........................................................................................ 62

6.2

Locating the real-time position of emergency vehicles to a

high level of accuracy using low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS)
devices................................................................................................................ 64
6.3

Geocoding eme rgency location addresses to geographic

coordinates ........................................................................................................ 65
6.4

Identifying the closest available emergency vehicle to an

emergency location ........................................................................................... 67
6.5

Providing routing information for emergency locations to

emergency vehicles ........................................................................................... 68
6.6

Analysis of emergency history .............................................................. 69

vi

CHAPTER SEVEN .................................................................................................... 70
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND FURTHER WORK .................................... 70
7.1

Summary................................................................................................. 70

7.2

Conclusion .............................................................................................. 71

7.3

Further Work ......................................................................................... 72

BIBLIOGRAPHY .................................................................................................. 73
APPENDICES........................................................................................................ 77
Appendix A: The Oracle PL/SQL XML Parser Script .................................... 77
Appendix B: Database Tables‟ Creation.......................................................... 81
Appendix C: Road Network Creation.............................................................. 83
Appendix D: Oracle Geocoder Tables‟ Creation ............................................. 84
Appendix E: The Web Server Functionalities ................................................. 87
Appendix F: The Mobile Client ....................................................................... 91

vii

List of Figures
Figure 1: Study area comprising of selected roads in Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria (Google
Map, 2010) ................................................................................................................... 6
Figure 2: Representation of a satellite‟s geometry (BAJR, 2004) ............................ 15
Figure 3: Positional error due to reflection of a GPS satellite signal (Nayak et al.,
2000)........................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 4: The Map- matching process (Bernstein and Kornhauser, 1996) ................ 18
Figure 5: Point-to-Point Matching (Bernstein and Kornhauser, 1996) ..................... 19
Figure 6: Point-to-Curve matching (Bernstein and Kornhauser, 1996) .................... 20
Figure 7: Curve-to-Curve matching (Yang et al., 2005) ........................................... 21
Figure 8: Problem of a relatively long polling time interval (Yang et al., 2005)...... 21
Figure 9: Topological and Data History Map- matching (Yang et al., 2005) ............ 23
Figure 10: Constraint of intersections and parallel roads (Yang et al., 2005)........... 23
Figure 11: Deterministic address matching (Goldberg et al., 2007) ......................... 25
Figure 12: The K-Nearest Neighbour (K-NN) Search (Speicys et al., 2003) ........... 27
Figure 13: Changes in result for 3-Nearest Neighbour search at different time
intervals (Speicys et al., 2003) ................................................................................... 27
Figure 14: Overview of the conceptual model of the system.................................... 31
Figure 15: The Water Fall Model (Frenzell, 1999) ................................................... 33
Figure 16: Oracle Spatial Geocoder Architecture (Kothuri et al., 2004) .................. 34
Figure 17: The EMTAC external GPS receiver ........................................................ 36
Figure 18: The Oracle Network Data Model (Kothuri et al., 2004).......................... 37
Figure 19: The Overall Structure of the System ....................................................... 41
Figure 20: The Entity-Relationship (E-R) Diagram of the System........................... 42
Figure 21: The links between the Primary Keys (PK) and Foreign Keys (FK) of
the tables..................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 22: The Web Server design............................................................................ 48
Figure 23: Theme based Features of Interest (FOI) Layer overlaid on a base map
layer ............................................................................................................................ 49
Figure 24: The Mobile Client design ........................................................................ 49

viii

Figure 25: Redundant Polygons removed from the Nigeria Map using ArcGIS ...... 54
Figure 26: Ikeja Division extracted from the Lagos Administrative Division Map
using ArcGIS .............................................................................................................. 54
Figure 27: Shp2Sdo Tool used to Convert Shape Files to ORACLE‟s
SDO_GEOMETRY format ........................................................................................ 54
Figure 28: The web server flowchart ........................................................................ 57
Figure 29: The tracking flowchart............................................................................. 57
Figure 30: The emergency flowchart ........................................................................ 58
Figure 31: The vehicle information flowchart .......................................................... 59
Figure 32: The report flowchart ................................................................................ 59
Figure 33: The mobile client flowchart ..................................................................... 60
Figure 34: A section of the digital road map............................................................. 63
Figure 35: Open Street Maps‟ road data overlaid on Google Earth.......................... 63
Figure 36: The outcome of the map- matching process ............................................. 64
Figure 37: Input elements for a Point of Interest ...................................................... 66
Figure 38: The geocoded location ............................................................................. 66
Figure 39: The nearest vehicle search ....................................................................... 67
Figure 40: Routing information transmitted to an emergency vehicle...................... 68
Figure 41: The emergency report .............................................................................. 69

ix


Related documents


msc dissertation work final print
mutcdpart3worksonroads
vibrio
ewb project submission
business math
imm and chemoprophylaxis


Related keywords