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DOCUMENTS SET

Documents in
World History
CD-ROM

PRENTICE HALL, UPPER SADDLE RIVER, NEW JERSEY 07458

CONTENTS
Part 1
THE FERTILE CRESCENT
1.1
Lugal Sulgi: Role Model for Mesopotamian Royalty
1.2
The Nippur Murder Trial and the “Silent Wife”
1.3
The Reign of Sargon
1.4
The Epic of Gilgamesh
1.5
The Code of Hammurabi
1.6
Daily Life in Egypt
1.7
A Humble Farmer Pleads His Own Case: The Workings of Ma’at
1.8
Some Common-sense Advice from the Scribe Any to His Son
1.9
Hebrew Scriptures
1.10 Assyrian War Tactics

1
4
5
6
21
23
25
34
42
44

Part 2
EARLY CIVILIZATION IN EAST ASIA
2.1
Might makes Right: the “Shu ching” Sets Forth the Mandate of Heaven
2.2
The Spirit World
2.3
Ch’u Yuan and Sung Yu: Individual Voices in a Chaotic Era
2.4
Confucius: Analects
2.5
Mencius: the Counterattack on Legalism
2.6
Taoism
2.7
Sima Qian: The Historian’s Historian Writes About the Builder of the Great Wall
2.8
Shi Huang Ti of Qin: A Study in Absolutism

45
49
51
53
57
61
72
75

Part 3
EARLY CIVILIZATION IN SOUTH ASIA
3.1
Rig Veda
3.2
Bhagavad Gita: Hinduism
3.3
The Foundation of the Kingdom of Righteousness
3.4
Dhammapada: Buddhism
3.5
Mahavira: The “Great Hero” of the Jain Religion
3.6
Asoka: How a Life Was Turned Around
3.7
“King Milinda”: The Greek World’s Incursion Into India
3.8
Fa-Hsien: A Chinese Perspective on Gupta India

78
80
98
100
108
110
113
116

Part 4
GREECE AND THE HELLENISTIC WORLD
4.1
Homer: The Iliad
4.2
Empires and Military Glory: Herodotus Relates the Story of Thermopylae
4.3
Thucydides
4.4
From Confederacy to Empire: Thucydides
4.5
The City-State of Sparta

118
120
123
131
132

ii

Contents
4.6
4.7
4.8a
4.8b

The First Philippic: A Great Orator Warns of Macedonian Imperialism
The Figure of Alexander
Against Communism
Virtue and Moderation: The Doctrine of the Mean

134
137
138
139

Part 5
ROME
5.1
A Hero Under Fire: Livy Relates the Trials and Tribulations of Scipio Africanus
5.2
“The War with Catiline”: Sallust’s Insights Into the Roman Republic’s Decline
5.3
The Transition from Republic to Principate: Tacitus
5.4
“All Roads Lead to Rome!”: Strabo
5.5
Gladiatorial Combat: Seneca
5.6
The Stoic Philosophy
5.7
Sidonius Appolinaris: Rome’s Decay, and a Glimpse of the New Order

140
143
145
146
147
148
150

Part 6
THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY
6.1
The Acts of the Apostles
6.2
Pliny the Younger on the Vesuvius Eruption and the Christian “Controversy”
6.3
Julian Imperator: The Ultimate Pagan
6.4
Bishop Synesius of Cyrene: A Lukewarm Churchman
6.5
Leo I: The Man Who Laid the Foundations for the Medieval Papacy
6.6
St. Augustine of Hippo, The Just War
6.7
Paulus Orosius, History Against the Pagans
6.8
St. Benedict

153
167
160
162
164
166
167
169

Part 7
MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION AFTER THE FALL OF ROME
7.1
Procopius, History of the Wars
7.2
Iconoclasm and Orthodoxy: The Second Council of Nicaea (787)
7.3
A Western Attitude Toward the Byzantine Greeks (1147): Odo of Deuil
7.4
Einhard
7.5
The Missi Dominici (802)
7.6
Launching the Crusades (1095): “It Is the Will of God!”

172
174
175
176
189
190

Part 8
ISLAM
8.1
Muhammad: Koran
8.2
Al-Tabari: an Early biography of Islam’s Prophet
8.3
Orations: The Words of the Prophet Through His Speeches
8.4
Islam in the Prophet’s Absence: Continuation Under the Caliphate
8.5
Harun al-Rashid and the Zenith of the Caliphate
8.6
Al-Farabi:The Perfect State
8.7
Islamic Science and Mathematics
8.8
The Caliphate in Decline: Al-Matawwakil’s Murder
8.9
Shiism and Caliph Ali: Controversy Over the Prophetic Succession

192
201
202
204
206
209
213
215
217

iii

Contents
Part 9
IMPERIAL CHINA AND THE DIFFUSION OF EAST ASIAN CIVILIZATION
9.1
The Tang Dynasty (618–907): The Art of Government
9.2
Sung (Song) China: Imperial Examination System
9.3
Record of Ancient Matters: Futo NoYasumaro
9.4
Prince Shotoku’s Seventeen Article Constitution
9.5
Pilgrimage to China (840): Ennin
9.6
Thai Civilization: Southeast Asia

220
222
224
230
232
233

Part 10
THE FORMATION OF EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION
10.1 St. Hildegard of Bingen, Know the Ways
10.2 St. Francis of Assisi, “The Rule of St. Francis”
10.3 The Goodman of Paris
10.4 The Love of God
10.5 St. Thomas Aquinas
10.6 Clericis Laicos (1298): Pope Boniface VIII
10.7 “A Most Terrible Plague”: Giovanni Boccaccio

235
238
241
243
244
249
250

Part 11
EURASIAN CONNECTIONS BEFORE EUROPEAN EXPANSION
11.1 Mansa Musa: The “King Who Sits on a Mountain of Gold”
11.2 The Cities of the Zanj and The Indian Ocean Trade
11.3 Ibn Battuta in Mali
11.4 The Mongol Khan’s Ultimatum to the Nations of Europe
11.5 William of Rubruck: Impressions of The Medieval Mongols
11.6 The Book of Ser Marco Polo
11.7 John Pian del Carpini, The Tartars
11.8 Kuyuk Khan, Letter to Pope Innocent IV

252
256
258
260
261
266
276
278

Part 12
ISLAMIC EMPIRES
12.1 Sunni versus Shi’ite: “We Exhort You to Embrace the True Faith!”
12.2 Süleyman “The Lawgiver” and the Advantages of Islam: Oigier de Busbecq
12.3 Women in Ottoman Society: Oigier de Busbecq
12.4 The Ottomans: Empire-builders at the Crossroads of Three Continents
12.5 The Safavid Shi’ite Empire of Persia
12.6 Shah Abbas the Great: The Resurgence of the Persian Empire
12.7 Moghul Apogee: Akbar the Enlightened

279
281
283
284
286
289
292

Part 13
RENAISSANCE AND REFORMATION IN EUROPE
13.1 Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486)
13.2 The Soul of Man (1474)
13.3 Castiglione’s “Courtier”: Prosperity Makes a Gentleman
13.4 Martin Luther
13.5 Luther vs. Erasmus: A Reformer’s Attack on Free Will
13.6 John Calvin and the Genevan Reformation
13.7 Council of Trent: The Catholic-Reformation
13.8 The Society of Jesus

296
297
298
301
308
311
313
320

iv

Contents
Part 14
EUROPEAN EXPLORATIONS AND EXPANSION
14.1 Kilwa, Mombasa, and the Portuguese: Realities of Empire
14.2 Vasco da Gama, Journey to India
14.3 The Portuguese in Africa and India: Duarte Barbosa
14.4 “Cut Off Their Ears, Hands and Noses!”: Gaspar Correa
14.5 Christopher Columbus
14.6 Bernal Díaz del Castillo
14.7 Bartolome De Las Casas: Persecutor Turns Protector
14.8 The British Encounter Maoris: A Sailor’s Impressions
14.9 The Prospects of Christian Conversion: Saint Francis Xavier

322
326
329
331
332
336
343
348
350

Part 15
TRADE AND EXPLOITATION ACROSS THE ATLANTIC
15.1 The “Black Legend” of Spain: Bartolomé de las Casas
15.2 “Our Kingdom Is Being Lost”: Nzinga Mbemba (Afonso I)
15.3 Olaudah Equiano, The Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, The African
15.4 Commerce, Slavery, and Religion in North Africa
15.5 Thomas Nelson, Slavery and the Slave Trade of Brazil

351
352
353
355
360

Part 16
LATE TRADITIONAL ASIA
16.1 Matteo Ricci, Journals
16.2 Dynastic change in China Tears a Family Apart
16.3 Ceremonial for Visitors: Court Tribute
16.4 Taisuke Mitamura, The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China
16.5 Letter to King George: China and Great Britain
16.6 Japan Encounters the West
16.7 The Laws for the Military House (Buke Shohatto), 1615 (Tokugawa “Hostage” System)

362
364
367
369
371
375
379

Part 17
NEW SCIENCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT
17.1 The Heliocentric Statement (ca. 1520): Nicolaus Copernicus
17.2 “I Think, Therefore I Am”: Discourse on Method (1637)
17.3 “I Learn and Teach from the Fabric of Nature”: On the Circulation of the Blood (1628)
17.4 Isaac Newton
17.5 Francis Bacon
17.6 On Universal Toleration: Voltaire
17.7 “The Greatest Happiness of the Greatest Number”: On Crimes and Punishments (1764)
17.8 An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations: Adam Smith
17.9 What Is Enlightenment? (1784): Immanuel Kant

381
383
385
387
390
393
395
397
403

Part 18
FROM OLD REGIME TO REVOLUTION
18.1 “The Mortal God”: Leviathan (1651)
18.2 The Ideal Absolute State (1697): Jean Domat
18.3 The Sighs of Enslaved France (1690): Pierre Jurieu
18.4 Declaration of Independence: Revolutionary Declarations

404
406
408
410

v

Contents
18.5
18.6
18.7
18.8

“What Is the Third Estate?” (January 1789): The Abbé Sieyès
The Tennis Court Oath (June 20, 1789)
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Edmund Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France

412
414
415
417

Part 19
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
19.1 Sybil (1845) Benjamin Disraeli
19.2 Women Miners in the English Coal Pits
19.3 Sadler Report: Child Labor
19.4 A Defense of the Factory System (1835): Andrew Ure
19.5 The Chartist Demands (1838)
19.6 Luddism: An Assault on Technology
19.7 Utopian Socialism (1816): Robert Owen
19.8 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

420
421
423
431
433
434
436
438

Part 20
NATIONALISM AND IMPERIALISM
20.1 Program of the Serb Society of National Defense [Narodna Odbrana]
20.2 Irish National Identity and Destiny: Three Views
20.3 Fustel de Coulanges, “What Is a Nation?” A Reply to Mr. Mommsen, Professor in Berlin
20.4 Lord William Bentinck, Comments on Ritual Murder and the Limits of Religious Toleration
20.5 The Scramble for Africa
20.6 Rudyard Kipling
20.7 Francisco García Calderón, “The North American Peril”

449
451
454
456
458
463
465

Part 21
EAST ASIA RESPONDS TO THE WEST
21.1 Lin Tse-hsü [Lin Zexu], Letter of Moral Admonition to Queen Victoria
21.2 “Use the Barbarians to Fight the Barbarians” (1842): Wei Yuan
21.3 “Why Are Western Nations Small and Yet Strong?”: Feng Guifen
21.4 The Treaty of Nanking: Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Commerce, Indemnity, etc.,
Between Great Britain and China, August 29, 1842
21.5 The Abdication Decree (1912): Long Yu
21.6 Geisha: Glimpse of Unfamiliar Japan
21.7 President Fillmore, “Letter to the Emperor of Japan”
21.8 Russo-Japanese War, 1904–1905, Imperial Rescript

474
478
479
481
483

Part 22
WORLD WAR I
22.1 The Horror of Battle
22.2 Slaughter on the Somme
22.3 “World War I: A Frenchman’s Recollections”
22.4 The Perversion of Technology: War in “No Man’s Land”
22.5 Sir Henry McMahon, Letter to Ali Ibn Husain
22.6 The Balfour Declaration
22.7 Woodrow Wilson, “Speech on the Fourteen Points”
22.8 The Covenant of the League of Nations

485
487
489
491
500
501
502
504

vi

469
472
473

Contents
Part 23
AUTHORITARIAN AND TOTALITARIAN EXPERIMENTS IN EUROPE
23.1 The Bolshevik Seizure of Power (November–December 1917)
23.2 Nadezhda K. Krupskaya, “What a Communist Ought to Be Like”
23.3 John Scott, Behind the Urals
23.4 Nadezhda Mandelstam, Hope Against Hope
23.5 The Rise of Benito Mussolini
23.6 Adolf Hitler

511
514
516
519
522
525

Part 24
AUTHORITARIAN AND TOTALITARIAN EXPERIMENTS IN ASIA
24.1 Kita Ikki, Outline for the Reconstruction of Japan
24.2 Japanese Imperialism
24.3 Mao Tse-Tung: Report of an Investigation into the Peasant Movement in Hunan
24.4 “How to Be a Good Communist” (1939): Li Shaoqi
24.5 The New Communist State (1940-1950)
24.6 “From the Countryside to the City”(May 1949): Mao Zedong
24.7 The Failure of the Nationalist Government: The American Assessment (1949)

530
533
536
542
544
546
547

part 25
WORLD WAR II
25.1 Adolf Hitler, The Obersalzberg Speech
25.2 The Atlantic Charter
25.3 The Rape of Nanjing
25.4 Hiroshima and Nagasaki
25.5 “Tojo Makes Plea of Self Defense”
25.6 The Charter of the United Nations

549
551
552
554
560
563

Part 26
THE COLD WAR
26.1 The Soviet Victory: Capitalism versus Communism (February 1946): Joseph Stalin
26.2 “An Iron Curtain Has Descended Across the Continent” (March 1946): Sir Winston Churchill
26.3 The Truman Doctrine (March 1947): Harry S. Truman
26.4 The Marshall Plan (June 1947): George C. Marshall
26.5 Korea: The Thirty-eighth Parallel
26.6 General Douglas MacArthur, Report to Congress, April 19, 1951: “Old Soldiers Never Die”
26.7 Henry A. Myers, “East Berliners Rise Up Against Soviet Oppression,” A Personal Account
26.8 “The Victory of Communism Is Inevitable!”: Speech to the 22nd
Communist Party Congress (1962): Nikita Khrushchev
Part 27
DECOLONIZATION
27.1 Mohandas K. Gandhi
27.2 Gandhi and Nehru: “Two Utterly Different Standpoints”: Jawaharlal Nehru
27.3 Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth
27.4 Kwame Nkrumah, I Speak of Freedom: A Statement of African Ideology
27.5 Israel’s Proclamation of Independence
27.6 Palestinian Declaration of Independence
27.7 Views of a Viet Cong Official
27.8 An American Prisoner of War

vii

571
572
574
575
576
578
581
584

586
593
595
597
599
601
603
605

Contents
Part 28
RACE, ETHNICITY, AND CONFLICT IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
28.1 Roupen of Sassoun, Eyewitness to Armenia’s Genocide
28.2 “The Struggle Is My Life” (1961): Nelson Mandela
28.3 Martin Luther King, Jr.
28.4 Keith B. Richburg, A Black Man Confronts Africa
28.5 Alain Destexhe, Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century
28.6 Declaration of Human Rights

607
609
612
620
622
626

Part 29
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN WORLD HISTORY
29.1 A United Germany in a United Europe (June 5, 1990): Helmut Kohl
29.2 The Reconciliation of France and Germany (September 24, 1990): François Mitterrand
29.3 Ethnic Cleansing in Northwestern Bosnia: Three Witnesses
29.4 Deng Xiaoping, A Market Economy for Socialist Goals
29.5 Pope John Paul II, Centesimus Annus
29.6 Saddam’s Invasion of Kuwait: Two Rationales
29.7 “We Wage a War to Save Civilization Itself” (2001): George W. Bush
29.8 Henry A. Myers, “Now, in the Twenty-First Century”

630
632
633
638
641
644
649
651

viii

PART 1
The Fertile Crescent
1.1

Lugal Sulgi: Role Model for Mesopotamian Royalty

The Sumerians often endowed the original lugals (priest-kings) of their city-states with extra-human
power and semi-divine ancestry. In the case of the legendary Sulgi of Nippur, his parentage included the
deities Ninsun and Lugalbanda. In the cuneiform tablet that relates the story of his reign, “Sulgi, the Ideal
King,” he is held up as being what the perfect lugal should be; modesty certainly not being one of his
flaws.
Source: Jacob Klein, “The Royal Hymns of Sulgi, King of Ur,” in Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, v. 71, pt. 7 (1981), Philadelphia; pp. 13, 15, 17, 19.

The hero avenged his city,
Whatever had been destroyed in Sumer, he destroyed in the foreign land,
He made the god of its city withdraw from it.
Its spirit (of) the good eye, (and) its angel (of) the good eye he
caused to stand aside,
In its cultivated fields of lustrous barley, he caused weeds to grow,
He destroyed its wide and large trees (with) the axe,
He tore down its date-palms by their crown,
He uprooted its small trees,
In its orchards and gardens, where the ‘honey’ of fig-trees had
been produced, he made weeds grow,
So that thistles and thorns broke through the ground.
The king—after he destroyed the cities, ruined the walls,
Terrified the evil land (like) a flood,
Dispersed the seed of the Gutians like seed-grain,
The pure lapis-lazuli of the foreign land he loaded into leathersacks and leather-bags,
Heaped up all its treasures,
Amassed all the wealth of the foreign land.
Upon its fattened oxen (and) fattened sheep,
He invokes the name of Enlil,
He invokes the name of Ninlil (sD 334–353.)
***
Let me extoll all my achievements!
The fame of my power has reached very far,
My wisdom is full of subtleties,
What of mine is not a mistery?
***
That the king might let known his enduring name into distant
days,
That sulgi, the king of Ur—
The hymn of his power, the song of his might,
That the wise one—the everlasting name of his preeminence,
Unto the offspring of future days might hand down,
For the mighty one, the son of Ninsun,
The Wisdom of the future was brought to the fore.

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