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JMEAST Full Issue (12 4 2 , 2014.pdf


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Journal of Middle East Applied Science and Technology (JMEAST)
ISSN (Online): 2305-0225
Issue 12(4) [Part II], August 2014, pp. 643-653
harmony with the architecture of the region" [4]. In 1378, in
a book entitled "Climate and Architecture", Kasmaei talked
about climatic factors, climate and structure, climate and
humans.
Betli Yen and colleagues offered a new style for the
interaction of city and climate and published it in a book
called " responsive environments" and also emphasized on
Radiation and wind as the most important environmental
factors affecting the operation of urban climates [5].
Modifications and adjustments caused by construction and
changes in the structure of a building in a radiation
condition, Heat, moisture and aerodynamic characteristics of
the surrounding environment were all discussed in a book
named "Microclimatology" [6]. Also various countries have
discussed this issue in different case studies. In a research
entitled "Improving the thermal comfort by environmental
design " , climate factors associated with urban
environments, buildings and human living conditions were
analyzed
[7].
In Bangladesh, a study was done on the impact of climate
change
on
urban
designs.
[8].
III.
Thermal
Comfort
Physiologically, the thermal comfort is in a range of
temperature and humidity in which the body's heat
regulating mechanism is at its minimum. [9]. There are
many different interpretations of "thermal comfort".
ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and
Air Conditioning Engineers) believes that thermal comfort is
a mental condition of an individual when he's satisfied in the
ambient temperature. The "mental condition" implied by
ASHRAE is a mixture of emotional, mental and
physiological conditions known as thermal comfort. There
are many variables in determining the impact of the comfort
zone .Environmental factors, personal factors, including
physical factors (clothes, activity rate, etc.) and
psychological (thermal expectations, length of stay,
experience, etc.) are some limited models for thermal
comfort. Olgiati had a specific definition of comfort zone
which was the lowest energy rate spent to create a favorable
environment. In addition to the definition and principles of
thermal comfort, another field of study has conducted based
on the digital indicators and till this day they have reached to
very important results and factors associated with the
physiology of the human body's energy balance are included
in the results and have very important role in today's
environmental studies. Physiological equivalent temperature
and the average predicted mean vote factors are mainly
known as (PET) and (PMV).[10].One of the most
comprehensive temperature index for a standard effective
temperature is known as SET which ASHRAE was able to
achieve a complete model of it in 1972.

urban
structure
and
its
impact
on
climate.
These studies are done based on the relationship between
urban density, ratio of length to width and climatic variables.
The structural model indicates a significant role in the city's
climate situation. [11]. The mere existence of a town
influences climate and when the town changes the climate
changes with it [12]. Urban areas have built a complex
structure in a micro scale. These models include variables
such as radiative and thermal properties of the surface, the
amount of incoming radiation from adjacent surfaces and the
coefficient of sky view and shadows created by objects [1].
Air temperature, wind speed, humidity, radiation are
environmental factors and indicators which define the
comfort limits. Studies have shown that the air temperature
and humidity cannot be considered while designing a plan
but they may be important in some rare cases. But wind and
radiation from the sun and Earth's average temperature could
greatly affect the design process and result. [5].
Intervention of the designer in form, orientation, materials,
coefficient of sky view, and amount of shade can seriously
change wind and exposure indicators. Design solutions to
control humidity and temperature indicators are very limited
and subtle, the connection between climatic and design
factors are shown in figure (1) as two man-made and natural
systems.

IV. connection Between Design and Climatically Variables
Numerous studies have been conducted in urban areas,

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