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Original filename: 6a200514-34ca-4ab0-b25b-053cae8ea852.pdf
Title: Communication Between Cultures
Author: Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter, Edwin R. McDaniel

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The Perfect Partner to Enhance Your Learning Experience!

Also available from the authors who defined
the course...

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION:
A READER, 12e
©2009

Samovar | Porter | McDaniel
496 Pages | Paperbound
0495554219 | 9780495554219

Visit www.ichapters.com or inquire
at your campus bookstore.
With a variety of readings that discuss the classic ideas that
laid the groundwork for this field, this edition of Intercultural
Communication: A Reader includes fascinating articles written
by authors from a wide array of countries and cultures to truly
reflect the diversity in intercultural communication.
Both classic readings and the newest ideas in the field are reflected in this affordable book, which
is theoretical and practical, so that you can first understand the issues associated with intercultural
communication and then act upon them.
As you apply the concepts reflected in these readings to your own life, you’ll quickly build the skills
you need to become an effective, culturally aware communicator.

Order your copy today!
You can purchase this helpful resource and thousands of other helpful
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SEVENTH EDITION

Communication
Between

CULTURES

Larry A. Samovar
San Diego State University, Emeritus

Richard E. Porter
California State University, Emeritus

Edwin R. McDaniel
Aichi Shukutoku University

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States

Communication Between Cultures,
Seventh Edition
Larry A. Samovar, Richard E. Porter,
Edwin R. McDaniel
Senior Publisher: Lyn Uhl
Executive Editor: Monica Eckman
Assistant Editor: Rebekah Matthews

© 2010, 2007 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein
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For product information and technology assistance, contact us at
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Printed in Canada
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09

Contents
Preface

xi

CHAPTER 1

COMMUNICATION AND
CULTURE: THE CHALLENGE
OF THE FUTURE

1

INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION
PRESENT AND FUTURE

2

Globalization
World Trade and International
Business
Technology and Travel
Competition for Natural Resources
International Conflict and Security
Environmental Challenges
World Health Issues
Shifting Populations
Immigration
The Aging U.S. Population
Multicultural Society

DEFINING OUR TERMS
Intercultural Communication
The Dominant Culture
Co-Cultures

COMMUNICATION
The Functions of Communication
Communication Allows You to Gather
Information About Other People
Communication Helps Fulfill Interpersonal
Needs

2
3
4
6
7
8
8
9
9
10
11

12
12
12
13

14
15
15
15

Communication Establishes Personal
Identities
Communication Influences Others
Communication Defined
Principles of Communication
Communication Is a Dynamic Process
Communication Is Symbolic
Communication Is Contextual
Communication Is Self-Reflective
We Learn to Communicate
Communication Has a Consequence

CULTURE

22

Defining Culture
The Basic Functions of Culture
Elements of Culture
History
Religion
Values
Social Organizations
Language
Characteristics of Culture
Culture Is Learned
Culture Is Shared
Culture Is Transmitted from
Generation to Generation
Culture Is Based on Symbols
Culture Is Dynamic
Culture Is an Integrated System

STUDYING INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
Individual Uniqueness

15
15
16
16
16
16
18
19
19
20
23
24
24
25
25
25
26
26
26
27
36
36
37
38
39

40
40

Contents iii

Stereotyping
Objectivity
Communication is not a Cure-all

41
43
44

PREVIEW OF THE BOOK

45

Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas

46
47
47

CHAPTER 2

THE DEEP STRUCTURE
OF CULTURE: ROOTS
OF REALITY

48

THE DEEP STRUCTURE OF CULTURE

49

Deep Structure Institutions Carry a
Culture’s Most Important Beliefs
Deep Structure Institutions and
their Messages Endure
Deep Structure Institutions and
their Messages are Deeply Felt
Deep Structure Institutions Supply
much of a Person’s Identity

FAMILY
The Importance of Family
Definition of Family
Forms of Family
Nuclear Families
Extended Families
Changing Families in the United States
Globalization and Families
Functions of the Family
Reproduction
Teaching Economic Values
Socialization
Teaching Core Values and Worldview
Identity Development
Communication Training
Communication, Culture, and
Family
Cultural Variants in Family
Interaction
Gender Roles
Changing Gender Roles
Individualism and Collectivism
iv

Contents

50
51
51
52

53
53
54
54
55
55
56
57
59
59
59
59
59
60
60
61
62
62
66
67

Age Grouping
Social Skills

HISTORY
History of the United States
History of Russia
History of China
History of India
History of Mexico
History of Islamic Civilization
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas

71
73

75
78
80
82
85
88
91
95
96
96

CHAPTER 3

WORLDVIEW: CULTURAL
EXPLANATIONS OF LIFE
AND DEATH

97

WORLDVIEW

97

Worldview and Culture
Expressions of Worldview
The Importance of Worldview
Forms of Worldview
Religion as a Worldview
Secularism as a Worldview
Spirituality as a Worldview

RELIGION
The Enduring Significance of
Religion
Religion and the Study of
Intercultural Communication
Religion and Behavior
The Study of Religion in the
Twenty-First Century
Selecting Worldviews for Study
Religious Similarities
Speculation
Sacred Scriptures
Rituals
Ethics
Safe Haven
Christianity
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death

98
98
99
100
100
101
102

103
103
104
104
105
106
106
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
112
115

Judaism
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Islam
Origins
Core Assumptions
Sunni and Shiite
Five Pillars of Islam
Jihad
The Koran
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Hinduism
Origins
Sacred Texts
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Buddhism
Origins
Core Assumptions
Cultural Manifestations
Notions about Death
Confucianism
Confucius the Man
Core Assumptions
The Analects
Cultural Manifestations
Confucianism and Communication
Notions about Death

RELIGION AND WORLDVIEW:
A FINAL THOUGHT
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas

116
116
118
120
121
122
123
124
125
127
128
129
131
132
133
133
134
136
138
139
139
140
144
145
146
146
147
147
147
148
149

150
150
151
151

CHAPTER 4

CULTURE AND THE
INDIVIDUAL: CULTURAL
IDENTITY

152

THE IMPORTANCE OF IDENTITY
EXPLAINING IDENTITY

153
154

SELECTED SOCIAL IDENTITIES

156

Racial Identity
Ethnic Identity
Gender Identity
National Identity
Regional Identity
Organizational Identity
Personal Identity
Cyber and Fantasy Identity

156
156
158
159
160
160
161
161

ACQUIRING AND DEVELOPING IDENTITIES
ESTABLISHING AND ENACTING
CULTURAL IDENTITY
IDENTITY IN INTERCULTURAL
INTERACTIONS
IDENTITY IN A MULTICULTURAL
SOCIETY
THE DARK SIDE OF IDENTITY
STEREOTYPING
Stereotypes Defined
Learning Stereotypes
Stereotypes and Intercultural
Communication
Avoiding Stereotypes

PREJUDICE
Functions of Prejudice
Ego-Defensive Function
Utilitarian Function
Value-Expressive Function
Knowledge Function
Expressions of Prejudice
Causes of Prejudice
Societal Sources
Maintaining Social Identity
Scapegoating
Avoiding Prejudice

RACISM
Racism Defined
Expressions of Racism
Avoiding Racism

ETHNOCENTRISM
Defining Ethnocentrism

163
164
167
168
169
170
170
170
171
172

173
173
174
174
174
174
174
175
176
176
176
176

177
177
178
178

179
179
Contents v

Characteristics of Ethnocentrism
Levels of Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism Is Universal
Ethnocentrism Contributes to Cultural
Identity
Avoiding Ethnocentrism
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas

180
180
180
180
181
182
183
183

CHAPTER 5

SHAPING INTERPRETATIONS
OF REALITY: CULTURAL
VALUES
184
PERCEPTION

184

What is Perception?
Perception and Culture

185
186

BELIEFS
EXPLORING VALUES
USING CULTURAL PATTERNS

187
188
190

Obstacles in Using Cultural
Patterns
We Are More than Our Culture
Cultural Patterns Are Integrated
Cultural Patterns Are Dynamic
Cultural Patterns Can Be Contradictory
Choosing Cultural Patterns

190
190
191
191
191
192

DOMINANT UNITED STATES CULTURAL
PATTERNS
192
Individualism
Equal Opportunity
Material Acquisition
Science and Technology
Progress and Change
Work and Play
Competitive Nature

193
194
195
195
196
196
197

DIFFERING CULTURAL PATTERNS
HOFSTEDE’S VALUE DIMENSIONS

197
198

Individualism/collectivism
Individualism
Collectivism
Uncertainty Avoidance

198
199
200
201

vi

Contents

High-Uncertainty Avoidance
Low-Uncertainty Avoidance
Power Distance
High-Power Distance
Low-Power Distance
Masculinity/Femininity
Masculinity
Femininity
Long- and Short-term Orientation

THE KLUCKHOHNS AND STRODTBECK’S
VALUE ORIENTATIONS

201
202
203
203
204
205
205
206
207

207

Human Nature Orientation
Evil
Good and Evil
Good
Person/Nature Orientation
Human Beings Subject to Nature
Cooperation with Nature
Controlling Nature
Time Orientation
Past Orientation
Present Orientation
Future Orientation
Activity Orientation
Being Orientation
Being-in-Becoming Orientation
Doing Orientation

208
209
209
210
210
210
210
211
212
212
212
213
213
213
214
214

HALL’S HIGH-CONTEXT AND
LOW-CONTEXT ORIENTATIONS

215

High Context
Low Context

215
217

FACE AND FACEWORK

217

Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas

219
220
220

CHAPTER 6

LANGUAGE AND
CULTURE: THE ESSENTIAL
PARTNERSHIP

221

SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FUNCTIONS
OF LANGUAGE

223

Communicative Exchange

223

Language and Identity
Language and Unity

223
224

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

225

What Is Language?
Language Variations
Accent
Dialect
Argot
Slang
Branding
The Symbiosis of Language
and Culture

LANGUAGE AS A REFLECTION
OF CULTURAL VALUES

225
227
227
227
228
228
228
228

230

High and Low Context
High and Low Power Distance
Individualism and Collectivism

230
231
232

LANGUAGE IN INTERCULTURAL
COMMUNICATION INTERACTIONS

233

Interpersonal Interactions
Mindfulness
Speech Rate
Vocabulary
Monitor Nonverbal Feedback
Checking
Interpretation and Translation
Interpretation
Translation
Intercultural Marriage

234
234
235
235
235
235
236
236
236
237

COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
AND LANGUAGE
Language Considerations in
Intercultural Competence
Summary
Activities
Discussion Ideas

238
240
240
242
242

CHAPTER 7

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION:
THE MESSAGES OF ACTION,
SPACE, TIME, AND SILENCE 243
THE IMPORTANCE OF NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION

244

Judging Internal States
Creating Impressions
Managing Interaction

244
245
245

DEFINING NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION

245

Intentional and Unintentional
Messages
Verbal and Nonverbal
Communication

STUDYING NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION

246
246

247

Nonverbal Communication Can
Be Ambiguous
Multiple Factors Can Influence
Nonverbal Communication
Nonverbal Communication is
Contextual

NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
AND CULTURE
CLASSIFICATIONS OF NONVERBAL
COMMUNICATION

247
247
248

248
250

Body Behavior
The Influence of Appearance
Judgments of Beauty
The Messages of Skin Color
The Messages of Attire
Body Movement (Kinesics)
Posture
Gestures
Facial Expressions
Facial Expressions and Culture
Some Cultural Examples
Eye Contact and Gaze
Eye Contact and the Dominant Culture
Some Cultural Examples
Touch
Some Cultural Examples
Paralanguage
Vocal Qualities
Vocal Characteristics
Vocal Segregates
Space and Distance
Personal Space

250
250
251
252
253
255
255
257
259
260
260
261
262
262
265
265
267
268
269
269
269
270

Contents vii


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