Multicore2016 JLG .pdf

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Original filename: Multicore2016-JLG.pdf
Title: A Radical Approach to Computation with Real Numbers
Author: John Gustafson

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A Radical Approach to
Computation with Real Numbers

{

±

John Gustafson
A*CRC and NUS

+


“Unums version 2.0”
1

0

Break completely from
IEEE 754 floats and gain:





Computation with mathematical rigor
Robust set representations with a fixed number of bits
1-clock binary ops with no exception cases
Tractable “exhaustive search” in high dimensions

Strategy: Get ultra-low precision right, then work up.
2

All projective reals, using 2 bits
10

±
11

+


0
00

3

01

“±∞” is “the point at
infinity” and is
unsigned.
Think of it as the
reciprocal of zero.

Linear depiction
±∞

all negative reals
(–∞, 0)

exact
0

all positive reals
(0, ∞)

10

11

00

01

Maps to the way 2s complement integers work!
Redundant point at infinity on the right is not shown.
4

Absence-Presence Bits
±∞ (–∞, 0) 0

10


5

11


00


(0, ∞)

01


or

or

or

or









Forms the power set of
the four states.
24 = 16 possible subsets
of the extended reals.

0 (open shape) if absent
from the set,
1 (filled shape) if present
in the set.

Rectangle if exact, oval or
circle if inexact (range)
Red if negative, blue if
positive

Sets become numeric quantities
The empty set, { }
All positive reals (0, ∞)

“SORNs”: Sets Of Real Numbers

Zero, 0

All nonnegative reals, [0, ∞)
All negative reals, (–∞, 0)
All nonzero reals, (–∞, 0) ∪ (0, ∞)
All nonpositive reals, (–∞, 0]

Closed under
x+y
x–y
x×y
x÷y
and… xy

All reals, (–∞, ∞)
The point at infinity, ±∞
The extended positive reals, (0, ∞]
The unsigned values, 0∪ ±∞

Tolerates division by 0.
No indeterminate forms.

The extended nonnegative reals, [0, ∞]
The extended negative reals, [–∞, 0)

All nonzero extended reals [–∞, 0) ∪ ( 0, ∞]
The extended nonpositive reals, [–∞, 0]

6

All extended reals, [–∞, ∞]

Very different from
symbolic ways of dealing
with sets.

No more “Not a Number”
√–1 = empty set:
0 / 0 = everything:
∞ – ∞ = everything:
1∞ = all nonnegatives, [0, ∞]:

etc.
Answers, as limit forms, are sets. We can express those!
7

Op tables need only be 4x4
For any SORN, do table
look-up for pairwise bits
that are set, and find the
union with a bitwise OR.

+

+
parallel
OR
8

Note that three entries “blur”,
indicating information loss.

Now include +1 and –1
100

±

101

(,1)
110

+1

(1,0)

(0,1)

0
000

9

The SORN is 8 bits long.

(1,)

1

111

011

001

010

This is actually enough
of a number system to
be useful!


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