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Cells : Cell is the smallest unit of life which comes from preexisting cell.
Cytoplasm : is a part of cell structure, it is a fluid area inside outer plasma membrane
and outside DNA region
Chromosome : fiber of DNA with proteins attached
.Chromatin : all of the cell’s DNA and the associated proteins
.Nucleoplasm : fluid of the nucleus
Anemia: means deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood, which can be caused by
.either too few red blood cells or too little hemoglobin in the cells
Hemoglobin: Red pigment molecule which gives RBCs (and blood) its color
Contains 4 molecules of heme and 4 of globin , 2 alpha chains and 2 beta chains
Each molecule of heme contains one iron ion.
Hematocrit: is the percentage of blood that is RBCs cells—normally, 40 to 45 per
.Tissues: distinct materials in the body made up of specialized cells
Organs: made up of tissues, fully differentiated (no two organs perform the exact
Body system: Group of organs that work with one another to perform a function
((breathing, circulating blood, reproduction
.somatic nervous system : controls voluntary activities of the body via sensory input
autonomic nervous system: controls involuntary activities of the body via sensory
.Sensory nerves: carry info from the body to the CNS
.Motor nerves: carry info from the CNS to muscles
inhalation: diaphragm and intercostal muscles (muscles between ribs) contract, ribs
are raised up and out, thoracic cavity expands, low pressure allows air to rush in
exhalation: diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax, ribs relax back in, pressure rises
.in lungs, air rushes out
.Arteries: carry oxygenated blood away from heart
.Veins: carry deoxygenated blood toward the heart
capillaries: fine end of circulatory tubes, intersect with cells in bodily tissues, feeds
.O2 and removes CO2, metabolic waste
.Skeletal Muscle: attached to bone, also called striated
.Smooth muscle: involuntary muscle
Cardiac muscle: own blood supply and it’s own electrical (stimulus) system; heart
.sets its own rhythm and rate without brain’s influence
:Normal Heart Rates
.Adult 60100 bpm, Child 70140 bpm, Newborns 120160 bpm
What are the function of :
Central Nervous System (CNS), brain and spinal cord function:
cerebrum: rational thought, sensory perception.←
cerebellum: coordinates movement.←
brain stem: controls basic body functions (circulatory, respiratory, digestive function).←
Gastrointestinal System: help process food and water, extract necessary nutrients / energy.
White Blood Cells: are part of the body's immune system. They help the body fight infection and
The Skeletal System: Structure to the body Bone marrow makes blood cells.
*Protect body from environment.←
*Regulate body temperature.←
*Receive nerve signals (sensory).←
Urinary System (kidney, urethra, bladder): filters and removes liquid waste, controls pH of
blood, manages electrolyte balance.
Lymphatic System: lymphnodes, white blood cells, spleen:↓
*removes excess interstitial fluid around cells into blood.←
*removes foreign molecules / bacteria from tissues, from bloodstream.←
*absorbs fat and fat soluble vitamins from the intestines.←
*produces lymphocytes, a white blood cell.←
● isolates cell contents.
● controls what gets in and out of the cell.
● receives signals.
Nucleus : isolates the cell’s genetic material.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum:
*Proteins are modified as they move through the RER.
*Once modified, the proteins are packaged in transport vesicles for transport to the Golgi
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum:
* Lipids are made inside the SER
*fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols.
* Lipids are packaged in transport vesicles and sent to the Golgi
* Completes the processing substances received from the ER.
* Sorts, tags and packages fully processed proteins and lipids in vesicles.
● Where fatty acids are metabolized.
● Where hydrogen peroxide is detoxified.
* contains digestive enzymes.
* Digests unwanted cell parts and other wastes.
Mitochondria: synthesis of ATP.
Cytoskeleton: gives cell's internal organization, shape, and ability to move.
*influences the rate of production of red blood cells (erythrocytes).
*maintains red blood cell mass.
Intrinsic Factor: combines with vitamin B12 in food and makes the B12 available for absorption
by the gut.
Red Blood Cells Enzymes:↓
*Metabolizing glucose and forming small amounts of adenosine Triphosphate.←
* Maintain pliability of the cell membrane.←
*Maintain membrane transport of ions.←
*Keep the iron of the cells’ hemoglobin in the ferrous form rather than ferric form.←
*Prevent oxidation of the proteins in the red cells.←
Symptoms Of Anemia:
*Weakness and fatigue
*Pale skin and gums
*Faintness or dizziness
*Loss of appetite
What is the effect of Oxygen on RBC’s production? :
Any condition that causes the quantity of oxygen transported to the tissues to decrease
ordinarily increases the rate of red blood cell production.
What are the different types of Anemia and their causes?:
1. Blood Loss Anemia (microcytic,hypochromic anemia).
After rapid hemorrhage, the body replaces the fluid portion of the plasma in 1 to 3 days, but this
leaves a low concentration of red blood cells. If a second hemorrhage does not occur, the red
blood cell concentration usually returns to normal within 3 to 6 weeks. In chronic blood loss, a
person frequently cannot absorb enough iron from the intestines to form hemoglobin as rapidly
as it is lost. Red cells are then produced that are much smaller than normal and have too little
hemoglobin inside them, giving rise to microcytic,hypochromic anemia.
2 Megaloblastic Anemia. Based on the earlier discussions of vitamin B12, folic acid, and intrinsic
factor from the stomach mucosa, one can readily understand that loss of any one of these can
lead to slow reproduction of erythroblasts in the bone marrow. As a result, the red cells grow
too large, with odd shapes, and are called megaloblasts.
3 Hemolytic Anemia. Different abnormalities of the red blood cells, many of which are
hereditarily acquired, make the cells fragile, so that they rupture easily as they go through the
capillaries, especially through the spleen:
a. In hereditary spherocytosis, the red cells are very small and spherical rather than being
biconcave discs. These cells cannot withstand compression forces. On passing through
the spline and some other tight vascular beds, they are easily ruptured by even slight
b. In sickle cell anemia, the cells have an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S.
When this hemoglobin is exposed to low concentrations of oxygen, it precipitates into
long crystals inside the red blood cell. These crystals elongate the cell and give it the
appearance of a sickle rather than a biconcave disc. The precipitated hemoglobin also
damages the cell membrane, so that the cells become highly fragile.
c. In erythroblastosis fetalis: Rhpositive red blood cells in the fetus are attacked by
antibodies from an Rhnegative mother. These antibodies make the Rhpositive cells
fragile, leading to rapid rupture and causing the child to be born with serious anemia. The
extremely rapid formation of new red cells to make up for the destroyed cells in
erythroblastosis fetalis causes a large number of early blast forms of red cells to be
released from the bone marrow into the blood.
d. is a form of inherited blood disorder characterized by abnormal formation of
haemoglobin. The abnormal hemoglobin formed results in improper oxygen transport
and destruction of red blood cells.
4. Iron deficiency anemia: Iron deficiency anemia is caused by a shortage of the element iron in
5. Aplastic Anemia: Bone marrow aplasia means lack of functioning bone marrow.
What are the normal values of Haemoglobin, Haematocrit and the number of Red Blood Cells?:
*hemoglobin: Red blood cells have the ability to concentrate hemoglobin in the cell fluid up to
about 34 grams in each 100 milliliters of cells.
*hematocrit: the percentage of blood that is RBCs cells—normally, 40 to 45 per cent.
*The number Of Red Blood Cells: In normal men, the average number of red blood cells per
cubic millimeter is 5,200,000 (±300,000); in normal women, it is 4,700,000 (±300,000).
What is the role of vitamin B12 and folic acid in Red Blood Cells production?
• Both of these vitamins are essential for the synthesis of DNA, because each in a different
way is required for the formation of thymidine triphosphate, one of the essential building
blocks of DNA. Therefore, lack of either vitamin B12 or folic acid causes abnormal and
diminished DNA and, consequently, failure of nuclear maturation and cell division.
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