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Exploring Industrial and Organizational Psychology .pdf



Original filename: Exploring Industrial and Organizational Psychology.pdf
Title: Exploring Industrial & Organizational Psychology: Work & Organizational Behavior
Author: Robert L. Dipboye

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EXPLORING INDUSTRIAL &
ORGANIZATIONAL
PSYCHOLOGY: Work &
Organizational Behavior
Robert L. Dipboye
First Edition

The first edition published 2016.
Text copyright. Robert L. Dipboye.
All rights reserved

The first edition published 2016.
Text copyright. Robert L. Dipboye.
All rights reserved

TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 2

ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Dr. Robert L. Dipboye received his undergraduate degree from Baylor University and
his Ph. D. in Industrial and Organizational Psychology from Purdue University. He was
Associate Professor in the Stokely School of Management at University of Tennessee
and Professor of Psychology and Management at Rice University. In his 26 years at
Rice he held the Herbert S. Autrey Chair in Social Sciences, was chair of the
department of psychology, and directed the program in Industrial and Organizational
Psychology. Most recently he was professor of psychology and department chair at the
University of Central Florida, where he is currently Professor Emeritus. Dr. Dipboye
was on the editorial boards of several professional journals including the Academy of
Management Review, Journal of Organizational Behavior, the Journal of Applied
Psychology, and the Frontiers Series of the Society of Industrial and Organizational
Psychology (SIOP). He also served as as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Applied
Psychology and as a Consulting Editor of the Journal of Organizational Behavior. He is
a fellow of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, the American
Psychological Association, and the Association for Psychology Science. Dr. Dipboye
has published several books and over 100 articles in the field of Industrial and
Organizational Psychology. He has also consulted with major corporations on problems
of Human Resources Management and Organizational Behavior.

TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE................................................................................................................................................. 20
CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS I/O PSYCHOLOGY?................................................................................................ 27
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 28
I/O AS A SPECIALTY WITHIN PSYCHOLOGY.......................................................................................................... 28
WHAT DO I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS DO? ................................................................................................................ 29
WHERE DO I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS WORK? .......................................................................................................... 31
HOW MUCH DO I/O PSYCHOLOGISTS EARN? .................................................................................................... 32
THE SCIENTIST-PRACTITIONER MODEL .............................................................................................................. 34
I/O IS A PROFESSION AS WELL AS A JOB ............................................................................................................ 35
A body of specialized knowledge: expertise ........................................................................................ 36
A normative orientation to the service of others: ethics ..................................................................... 36
Technical autonomy: self-governance in professional associations.................................................... 40
BECOMING AN I/O PSYCHOLOGIST ................................................................................................................... 42
THE FUTURE LOOKS BRIGHT FOR I/O PSYCHOLOGY ............................................................................................. 44
SOME POINTS TO PONDER .............................................................................................................................. 46
CONCLUSIONS .............................................................................................................................................. 46
CHAPTER 2: A HISTORY OF I/O PSYCHOLOGY ......................................................................................... 48
INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................ 49
THE EARLY YEARS (1880 – 1920) ................................................................................................................... 51
What were the major forces shaping work during the early years? ................................................... 51
Industrialization and mass production. ............................................................................................... 51
Massive waves of immigration ........................................................................................................... 53
Rise of the corporation. ....................................................................................................................... 53
What were the dominant theories of how to organize and manage work? ....................................... 55
The emergence of psychology as a separate discipline ....................................................................... 60
The early applications of psychology to work ..................................................................................... 63
THE MIDDLE YEARS (1920 – 1945) ................................................................................................................ 67
Economic boom and bust .................................................................................................................... 68
The Human Relations movement and neo-classical theories of management ................................... 74
The neoclassical and other notable organizational theorists.............................................................. 80
THE POST WWII ERA (1945 – 1965) ............................................................................................................. 83
Rapidly accelerating change in a period of progress and turmoil ....................................................... 83
The rise of organizational psychology ................................................................................................. 87
THE MODERN ERA (1990 – NOW) ................................................................................................................ 100
Global competition............................................................................................................................ 101
Computer technology and the internet ............................................................................................. 101
Terrorism ........................................................................................................................................... 103
The population explosion, diminishing resources, and climate change ............................................ 104
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 105
CHAPTER 3: I/O PSYCHOLOGY AS A SCIENCE ........................................................................................ 107
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 108
DISTINGUISHING SCIENCE FROM NON-SCIENCE ................................................................................................ 108
Characteristics of non-scientific knowledge ...................................................................................... 109
Characteristics of scientific knowledge ............................................................................................. 110
TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 4

THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD ............................................................................................................................. 114
The goals of scientific research ......................................................................................................... 116
Some basic terms .............................................................................................................................. 116
STATISTICS................................................................................................................................................. 117
Distributions. ..................................................................................................................................... 117
Descriptive statistics.......................................................................................................................... 119
Inferential statistics. .......................................................................................................................... 130
MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES ...................................................................................................................... 134
Levels of measurement. .................................................................................................................... 134
Reliability of measurement. .............................................................................................................. 135
Validity of measures. ......................................................................................................................... 136
META-ANALYSIS ......................................................................................................................................... 147
Basic steps involved in conducting a meta-analysis .......................................................................... 147
Corrections for statistical artifacts in meta-analysis......................................................................... 148
DESIGNING RESEARCH FOR EXPLANATION ........................................................................................................ 151
Hold constant or eliminate variables ................................................................................................ 151
Manipulate the variable.................................................................................................................... 152
Measure the variable ........................................................................................................................ 152
Randomly assign research participants to conditions....................................................................... 152
Match on the variable ....................................................................................................................... 154
DIFFERENT TYPES OF RESEARCH..................................................................................................................... 154
Experimental vs. nonexperimental .................................................................................................... 154
Laboratory vs. field research ............................................................................................................. 157
Obtrusive vs. unobtrusive research ................................................................................................... 157
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VALIDITY OF EXPLANATIONS .................................................................................... 158
Threats to the internal validity of a research design ......................................................................... 159
Threats to the construct validity of a research design ...................................................................... 161
Threats to external validity of a research design .............................................................................. 162
ETHICS IN I/O PSYCHOLOGY RESEARCH ........................................................................................................... 166
ACADEMIC RESEARCH VS. PRACTICAL REALITIES ................................................................................................ 168
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 169
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 170
CHAPTER 4: WORK MOTIVATON .......................................................................................................... 171
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 172
Key behavioral indicators of motivation ........................................................................................... 173
Performance vs. motivation .............................................................................................................. 174
The internal focus of motivation theory ............................................................................................ 174
The interaction of the environment with internal forces .................................................................. 174
Seven practical questions .................................................................................................................. 175
WHAT ARE EMPLOYEES’ GOALS? ................................................................................................................... 176
Why goals improve performance: Mediators of goal effects ............................................................ 176
What goal characteristics influence motivation and performance? ................................................. 177
What moderates goal effects? .......................................................................................................... 180
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 184
WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR? ................................................................................ 184
Types of conditioning ........................................................................................................................ 185
Schedules of reinforcement ............................................................................................................... 187
Application of BMod in the workplace .............................................................................................. 190
TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 5

Implications and current trends ........................................................................................................ 192
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 193
WHAT ARE EMPLOYEES’ EXPECTATIONS? ........................................................................................................ 193
Basic components and predictions of VIE theory .............................................................................. 194
Research testing VIE theory .............................................................................................................. 200
Implications ....................................................................................................................................... 202
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 203
WHAT DO EMPLOYEES NEED?....................................................................................................................... 203
Murray’s taxonomy of needs ............................................................................................................ 205
Maslow’s need hierarchy .................................................................................................................. 208
Alderfer’s existence, relatedness, growth (ERG) theory .................................................................... 213
McClelland’s three need theory ........................................................................................................ 213
Practical implications of need theories ............................................................................................. 218
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 219
WHAT IS FAIR? .......................................................................................................................................... 219
Distributive fairness .......................................................................................................................... 221
Procedural fairness ........................................................................................................................... 231
Interactional fairness ........................................................................................................................ 234
Informational fairness ....................................................................................................................... 235
Inter-relationships among types of justice ........................................................................................ 237
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 237
DOES WORK ENGAGE THE SELF? ................................................................................................................... 238
Finding meaning through self-conception and self-evaluation ......................................................... 238
Theories of self-enhancement and self-maintenance ....................................................................... 239
Self-related constructs ...................................................................................................................... 240
Limitations on self-enhancement ...................................................................................................... 245
ARE EMPLOYEES INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED? .................................................................................................. 246
Herzberg’s two-factor theory ............................................................................................................ 247
Self-determination theory ................................................................................................................. 249
Job enrichment as a strategy for increasing intrinsic motivation ..................................................... 251
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 256
INTEGRATIVE APPROACHES TO WORK MOTIVATION .......................................................................................... 256
The motivational theories are reconcilable ....................................................................................... 256
Integrating with VIE theory ............................................................................................................... 258
Work motivation as an unfolding process......................................................................................... 259
Control theory as an integrative framework ..................................................................................... 261
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 262
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 263

CHAPTER 5: ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK AND ORGANIZATIONS.......................................................... 267
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 268
JOB SATISFACTION ...................................................................................................................................... 270
How is job satisfaction measured? ................................................................................................... 270
Points to Ponder: .......................................................................................................................................... 278

Work environment characteristics associated with job satisfaction ................................................. 279
Personal characteristics associated with job satisfaction ................................................................. 281
Person-environment fit as an antecedent to job satisfaction ........................................................... 286
Points to ponder ........................................................................................................................................... 287

How does job satisfaction form? ....................................................................................................... 287
TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 6

Points to ponder ........................................................................................................................................... 295

Outcomes of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction .................................................................................... 296
Points to ponder: .......................................................................................................................................... 307

JOB INVOLVEMENT ...................................................................................................................................... 307
Measurement of job involvement ..................................................................................................... 307
Correlates of job involvement ........................................................................................................... 308
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 309
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT .................................................................................................................. 309
Three components of organizational commitment ........................................................................... 309
Correlates of organizational commitment ........................................................................................ 310
Commitment as an exchange process ............................................................................................... 312
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 312
SATISFACTION, INVOLVEMENT AND COMMITMENT: SAME OR DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTS? .......................................... 312
EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT: AN AGGREGATE ATTITUDINAL CONSTRUCT .................................................................. 313
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 315
CHAPTER 6: WORK STRESS ................................................................................................................... 317
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 318
Myths about stress ............................................................................................................................ 319
Definition of stress. ........................................................................................................................... 320
A TRANSACTIONAL PROCESS MODEL OF STRESS ............................................................................................... 322
The physiology of stress .................................................................................................................... 323
Fight or flight. ................................................................................................................................................ 323
General adaptation syndrome. ..................................................................................................................... 323

The psychology of stress ................................................................................................................... 328
Cognitive appraisal. ....................................................................................................................................... 329
Person-Environment (PE) fit. ......................................................................................................................... 330
Conservation of resources. ........................................................................................................................... 330
Job Demands-Control-Support. ..................................................................................................................... 331

Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 331
WHAT ARE POTENTIAL STRESSORS FOR WORKERS? ........................................................................................... 332
What occupations are most stressful? .............................................................................................. 332
Lack of support .................................................................................................................................. 333
Work overload and demands ............................................................................................................ 335
Lack of control and autonomy .......................................................................................................... 337
Work underload: monotony and lack of challenge ........................................................................... 340
Aversive physical work environment ................................................................................................. 342
Shiftwork ........................................................................................................................................... 343
Role stress ......................................................................................................................................... 344
Interpersonal conflict ........................................................................................................................ 346
Organizational politics ...................................................................................................................... 348
Organizational injustice .................................................................................................................... 349
Unfair discrimination ........................................................................................................................ 351
Downsizing and job insecurity ........................................................................................................... 352
Nonwork stressors ............................................................................................................................. 356
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 360
STRAINS: WORK-RELATED CONSEQUENCES OF SUSTAINED STRESS........................................................................ 360
Effects of stress on performance ....................................................................................................... 361
Effects of stress on unsafe work behaviors and accidents ................................................................ 363

TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 7

Effects of stress on work-related attitudes and OCBs ....................................................................... 364
Effects of stress on burnout .............................................................................................................. 365
Effects of stress on work place violence ............................................................................................ 367
Effects of stress on withdrawal behaviors......................................................................................... 369
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 369
WHO IS MOST LIKELY TO SUFFER FROM STRESS? .............................................................................................. 370
Demographic variables ..................................................................................................................... 371
Sex. ................................................................................................................................................................ 371
Ethnicity. ....................................................................................................................................................... 372
Age. ............................................................................................................................................................... 373
Discrimination against demographic groups. ................................................................................................ 373

Personality ........................................................................................................................................ 375
The big five personality traits. ....................................................................................................................... 375
Locus of control. ............................................................................................................................................ 375
Type A-B personality. .................................................................................................................................... 376
Hardiness. ..................................................................................................................................................... 377
Negative affectivity (NA). .............................................................................................................................. 378

Conceptual approaches to the role of personal characteristics in stress .......................................... 378
Person-Environment fit. ................................................................................................................................ 378
The conservation of resources model (COR). ................................................................................................ 379

HOW CAN EMPLOYEES MANAGE STRESS? ....................................................................................................... 380
Physical exercise ................................................................................................................................ 380
Relaxation/meditation techniques .................................................................................................... 382
Biofeedback....................................................................................................................................... 383
Psychotherapy ................................................................................................................................... 384
Personal coping styles ....................................................................................................................... 384
Do stress management interventions work? .................................................................................... 386
Organizational interventions ............................................................................................................ 387
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 388
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 388
CHAPTER 7: SOCIAL PROCESSES IN ORGANIZATIONS ........................................................................... 392
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................... 393
A working model of emergent social process.................................................................................... 394
Contextual factors influencing social process ................................................................................... 395
Interpersonal factors ......................................................................................................................... 398
Personal factors ................................................................................................................................ 399
Formal vs. informal social processes ................................................................................................. 401
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 402
COMMUNICATION PROCESSES ....................................................................................................................... 402
A model of organizational communication ....................................................................................... 403
Points of vulnerability in the communication process ....................................................................... 403
Picking a medium appropriate to the message ................................................................................ 414
Gossip and rumor .............................................................................................................................. 415
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 417
SOCIAL EXCHANGE PROCESSES ...................................................................................................................... 418
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 422
COOPERATION, COMPETITION, AND CONFLICT PROCESSES .................................................................................. 422
Contextual factors affecting cooperation, competition, and conflict ............................................... 423
Personal causes of cooperation, competition, and conflict............................................................... 427
TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 8

The development of conflict .............................................................................................................. 428
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 430
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR ....................................................................................................... 431
COUNTER-PRODUCTIVE WORK BEHAVIOR (CWB) ............................................................................................ 434
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 437
SOCIAL POWER AND INFLUENCE PROCESSES ..................................................................................................... 437
The French and Raven model of social power ................................................................................... 437
Social influence tactics ...................................................................................................................... 439
Responses to influence attempts ...................................................................................................... 442
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 443
POLITICAL BEHAVIOR ................................................................................................................................... 443
Political tactics .................................................................................................................................. 443
Situational antecedents of political behavior.................................................................................... 445
Perceptions of politics (POPS) ........................................................................................................... 447
Personality traits associated with perceptions of politics ................................................................. 449
Culture as a moderator of POPS........................................................................................................ 450
Political skill and will ......................................................................................................................... 451
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 452
CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................ 452
CHAPTER 8: SOCIAL STRUCTURES IN ORGANIZATIONS ......................................................................... 455
A model of imposed and emergent social structure ......................................................................... 456
Formal vs. informal social structures ................................................................................................ 456
DIVISION OF LABOR ..................................................................................................................................... 458
Formal horizontal and vertical differentiation of labor..................................................................... 458
Social roles ........................................................................................................................................ 459
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 461
DISTRIBUTION OF POWER AND STATUS ........................................................................................................... 462
Alternative power distributions......................................................................................................... 463
The universality of the pyramid ........................................................................................................ 464
Why is the traditional pyramid so common? .................................................................................... 465
Emergent distributions of power and status ..................................................................................... 466
Why do informal power distributions emerge? ................................................................................ 466
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 470
RULES....................................................................................................................................................... 470
Formal rules ...................................................................................................................................... 470
Social norms ...................................................................................................................................... 471
Points to ponder ................................................................................................................................ 475
CORE VALUES AS SOCIAL STRUCTURES ............................................................................................................ 476
Formal communication of core values .............................................................................................. 476
Informal communication of core values via climate and culture ...................................................... 477
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 481
SHARED SOCIAL IDENTITY AS A SOCIAL STRUCTURE ............................................................................................ 481
Formal attempts to create a shared identity .................................................................................... 482
Emergent identities in the organization ............................................................................................ 483
The emergence of a shared social identity ........................................................................................ 485
Points to ponder: ............................................................................................................................... 490
SOCIAL NETWORKS ..................................................................................................................................... 491
The method of social network analysis ............................................................................................. 492
TEXT COPYRIGHT ROBERT L. DIPBOYE 2016 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 9


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