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Michelle Nicole Boyer
AIS160A1 – Week 2
1. Which is the best definition of a papal bull?
a. An official document or proclamation issued by the Pope asking about available
lands in the Americas
b. An official document or proclamation issued by the Pope that approves of
conquest, colonization, and exploitation of non-Christian lands
c. An official document or proclamation issued by the Pope that invites nonChristian nations to become Christian
d. An official document or proclamation issued by the Pope that lists items he would
like explorers to bring him back from non-Christian lands
2. What was the Romanus Pontifex?
a. A papal bull that declared war against “all Indigenous peoples”
b. A papal bull that declared war against Spain, Britain, and France
c. A papal bull that declared war against “all non-Christians throughout the world”
d. A papal bull that declared war against Christians that did not support the Crusades
3. How is biocultural diversity best defined?
a. The diversity of life in all of its manifestations–biological, cultural, and
linguistic—which are interrelated (and likely co-evolved) within a complex socioecological adaptive system.
b. The diversity of structures of plants that come about due to shifts in temperature,
land mass, the soil, and the ecological Indian farmer who tends to the plant.
c. The diversity that you can find within a non-Indigenous ecosystem that supports
the diversity of plant and animal life through creating multiple sub-species, all of
which evolve together within ten days of one another.
d. The chart that lists flora and fauna based on their attributes like color of petals,
stems, number of buds, number of leaves, location of growth, arid land
temperature adjustment, etc.
4. What question did Shepard Krech III’s novel, The Ecologicial Indian (1999), focus on?
a. To what extent have Native North Americans fought skirmishes with the Danish?
b. To what extent have Native North Americans been ecologists or conservationists?
c. To what extent have Native North Americans been involved with the European
fur trade in the Indigenous southwest?
d. To what extend have Native North Americans been interested in playing mahjong.