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Wind Pump PDF
Andrew Bowen, Audrey Fuhr, Rebecca Jiang, Andrew Klapproth,
Katrina Lastra, Adler Smith
May 9th, 2016

1

Contents
1 Problem Statement

4

2 Design Plan
2.1 Morphological Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Decision on Basic Design Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Preliminary Development of Design Specifics . . . . . .
2.4 Correction of Prominent Issues with Preliminary Design
2.5 Optimization and Further Goals/Changes . . . . . . . .
2.6 Changes Made Upon Preliminary Assembly . . . . . . .
2.7 Final Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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3 Machining the MKIII

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4 Analysis of Quality of the Final Design

20

5 Test Results
5.1 Wind Pump Initial Dry Test with drill from the machine
5/2/16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Wind Pump Dry Test #1: 5/3/16 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3 Wind Pump Final Tests: 5/4/16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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shop:
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6 MATLAB Analysis

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7 Marketing Plan

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8 Competition Analysis
32
8.1 Competitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
8.2 Analysis amd Comparison to the ACX MKIII . . . . . . . . . . . 32
9 Cost Analysis

35

10 Future Goals

40

11 Appendix A. Meeting Minutes

40

12 Appendix B. Preliminary Design Review Presentation

43

13 Appendix C. Final Design Review Presentation

44

14 Appendix D. Marketing Presentation

45

15 Appendix E. Mathematical Analysis for Failure

46

16 Appendix F. CAD Model of ACX MKIII

47

2

List of Figures
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32

Morphological Chart for Design/Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Morphological Chart for Specifics (i.e Dimensions) . . . . . . . .
Pump with cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial CAD of pump length 13.19” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial crank arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preliminary cylinder assembly design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preliminary crank rod design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drilled front endcap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final crank arm dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final cylinder length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Front Endcap Ported for Drainage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preliminary assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baseplate depression faces faceplate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final CAD Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Final Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Top view of final crank arm/crank rod assembly . . . . . . . . .
Gantt Chart: A Timeline of the Wind Pump Production and
Analysis Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Initial test on low speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sample of MATLAB ”pistonkin” Function . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diagram of Scotch-Yoke Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modified pistonkin subfunction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MATLAB Analyis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Steady state regime plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graph of Liters Pumped . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ACX Hydrosystems Logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pareto front comparing ACX to competition . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pareto front showing the option of purchasing three MKIIIs . . .
Preliminary Design Review Presentation Slides . . . . . . . . . .
Final Design Review Presentation Slides . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specific Marketing Presentation Slides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Full Piston Assembly: CAD, Drawing, and Exploded View . . .

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List of Tables
1

Initial Pugh Decision Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3

7

1

Problem Statement

Your customer is developing a water pump driven by wind power for energy
storage. They have asked you to develop a small-scale prototype of an efficient
piston water pump. The pump drive shaft attaches to a customer-supplied
plate and sprocket as specified below. For the prototype, a commercial fan at a
realistic wind speed of around 7 m/s will drive the wind turbine. The wind
turbine blades have a radius of 0.75 m. As a prelude to this project, you will
have measured the torque and power characteristics of the turbine.
The following customer statements were provided and outlined the basic
physical requirements that were strongly considered when choosing the ACX
MKIII design.
• The prototype should pump water from an input reservoir with water level
at the height of the drive shaft to an output reservoir with water level at
an elevation at least 1.5m above the axis of the drive shaft at a rate of at
least 1 liter/min.
• The cylinder bore diameter should be machined to an appropriate fit with
the piston stock (1.875”).
• The pump must sit stably on a 7”x7” horizontal plate supplied by the
customer.
• The output drive shaft must be a 1/2” diameter rod extending 2 1/2”
beyond the supplied face-plate (1/2” thick). Its axis will be located 5 ±
2” above the horizontal plate. The pump will be attached to the face-plate
by 4, 1/4”-20 thread screws located on the face plate as shown on sketches
provided on BLACKBOARD.
• The over all dimensions of the pump must be such that it fits into a volume
no greater than 14”x14”x14”. It will sit on the 7”x7” horizontal plate (see
sketch on BLACKBOARD).
• The input torque will be provided by the customer-supplied wind turbine.
• In addition to those requirements outlined by the customer, ACX establishes a set of additional self-imposed requirements for their products.
ACX believes that having these additional requirements will create reliable, high-quality products that have comparative advantages over the
competitors. These additional requirements were determined through focus groups of both individuals and businesses, which allows ACX to fully
understand the customer and the desired markets. For this product, such
requirements included low noise level, minimal leakage, pleasing aesthetic,
ease of repair and maintenance, affordability, safety, and longevity.

4

2
2.1

Design Plan
Morphological Chart

In an attempt to narrow down that various possible ideas when choosing a
design, a morphological chart was created and debated. The first morphological
chart shown below was used to decide on the main design and several parts
within.

Figure 1: Morphological Chart for Design/Materials

The next morphological chart was created to decide on the more technical
aspects of the design, such as dimensions.

Figure 2: Morphological Chart for Specifics (i.e Dimensions)

The dimensions of the bore length, piston thickness, and the distance it
traveled were all taken into account. Since these values greatly affected the
size and overall design of the MKIII, the final dimensions were chosen for the
scotch-yoke design. The pistons were approximately 21 ” in length, traveled a
distance of roughly 2” through a cylinder with a total length of 2 12 ”.

5

Concept 1: Slider Crank
• Pros
– Easy to machine. All parts are of a standard geometry and would
not take significant skill to machine.
– May have more flexibility with design and orientations (only design
that could incorporate a 90 degree, 4 piston orientation)
• Cons
– Includes more moving parts than necessary - where the piston arm
that connects to the drive shaft. This can lead to issues with parts
coming loose and damaging themselves.
– Difficult to maintain and repair. The rotating piece on the piston
arm will wear quicker than in any other design, and since it is a vital
part of the design, repairing it needs to be as fast and as easy as
possible.
Concept 2: Scotch Yoke
• Pros
– Reliable. Once the piece is machined, it is not as likely to fail as
other piston assemblies might.
– Simple design, no moving or rotating parts outside of what is directly
attached to the drive shaft. This will make it wear less and be easier
to repair if something fails.
• Cons
– Difficult piece to machine. The sides of the machined hole need to as
smooth and straight as possible to allow for a constant stroke and to
reduce the risk of jamming and wear on the yoke itself.
Concept 3: Cam Follower
• Pros
– The design allows for multiple pistons and orientations, since multiple
piston arms can be placed on the cam follower at the same time.
• Cons
– The the piston arm will not be permanently attached to the rest
of the assembly (unless more complicated and difficult designs are
explored). This means parts can become loose and generally be unreliable.
– The most difficult to machine. The piece attached to the drive shaft
must be machined to be a smooth and consistent oval. Given the
fact it must be done by hand, that is nearly impossible.

6

2.2

Decision on Basic Design Factors

A design also had to chosen that used either multiple cylinders or a single
cylinder. The advantage of multiple cylinders is that the pump will pump more
and it will create a more interesting design. The disadvantage is that it is
harder to machine, and the alignment of the pump is more important to have a
functioning pump.
In the preliminary phase of design, ACX debated mainly between slider crank
and scotch yoke pumps, and between one and two cylinders. The following
decision matrix highlights major design considerations, and led to the final
decisions on both of these aspects.
Criterion
Size
Ease of Maintenance
Machinability
Reliability of Mechanism
Rate of Moving Water
Torque Required

Weight
15%
10%
15%
20%
20%
20%
Total Score
Continue?

Piston Type
Slider Crank
Scotch Yoke
Rating Weighted Score Rating Weighted Score
3
0.45
3
0.45
2
0.20
3
0.30
4
0.60
3
0.45
3
0.60
4
0.80
3
0.60
3
0.60
3
0.60
3
0.60
3.05
3.20
No
Yes

Number of Cylinders
One Cylinder
Two Cylinders
Rating Weighted Score Rating Weighted Score
4
0.60
3
0.45
5
0.50
3
0.45
4
0.60
3
0.45
3
0.60
4
0.80
2
0.40
5
1.00
4
0.80
3
0.60
3.50
3.70
No
Yes

Table 1: Initial Pugh Decision Matrix
Enclosure for the Pump
An enclosure for the pump was decided to make the pump more professional
and to add a unique element to the wind pump design. The enclosure was used
during the Marketing Presentation to help sell the product. This enclosure is
made out of thin wood to keep the design low cost. The wood was laser cut
from balsa wood. These thin sheets help add a level of separation between the
customer and the mechanical aspects of the pump so that the customer need
only enjoy the functionality of the pump and can remain independent from the
complex functional aspects, experiencing a smooth-exterior, aesthetic, finished
product.

Figure 3: Pump with cover

7

2.3

Preliminary Development of Design Specifics

The preliminary design was developed mainly through CAD and sketches. CAD
files were shared with the ACX team every time a new revision was made. This
system ensured that all old iterations were archived.
The initial design strove mainly to fit within the requirements, achieving a
total length of just under 14”.

Figure 4: Initial CAD of pump length 13.19”

The dimensions were based mainly around the selected stroke length. The
crank arm was designed with a center distance (between drive shaft and crank
rod) of 0.60”.

Figure 5: Initial crank arm

This dimension was nominated as a starting place since it seemed to offer
a reasonable stroke length: 1.20” plus half the crank rod diameter ( 14 ”). After
this dimension was proposed, all other dimensions were based around it: front

8

endcaps needed to be far enough apart to not collide with the yoke, and cylinders
needed to be long enough for the piston to not collide with the back endcaps.
1
4 -20 threaded rods were selected for bridging the cylinder assemblies to keep
them connected, as this was the dimension that fit in the available endcaps. The
yoke was selected to be machined from 0.7” aluminum bar stock, as this seemed
to be an appropriate thickness for a robust yoke. The crank arm was design to
be machined from 0.4” aluminum bar stock for similar reasons. Additionally,
the pistons were selected to be PVC because PVC was readily available from
Emerson for this purpose. The piston rods were chosen as 12 ” aluminum, as
aluminum is much lighter than steel, and 12 ” aluminum is too thick to bend
under the moment of a small scotch yoke. ACX decided to attach the pistons
to the piston rods by creating 12 ”-13 threads on both, running the full length of
the piston (0.6”), and also running 0.6” up the end of the piston rods.
The front end caps selected were hollow within the area of the cylinder, and
just surrounded the outsides of the cylinders.

Figure 6: Preliminary cylinder assembly design

1
4 -20

nuts were placed at the ends of all 14 -20 rods in this preliminary CAD

design.
The scotch yoke was designed to be tapped with 41 -20 thread, into which
the piston rods would thread for attachment. The threads were, at this stage,
intended to reach 0.3” into the yoke on each side.
The crank rod assembly was initially given a fairly complex design. A 41 ”
aluminum rod was to cross through a nut, the yoke, another nut, the crank arm,
and another nut. A thin teflon sleeve was added to the portion of the crank rod
inside the yoke to reduce friction with the yoke. The drive shaft was to be fixed
to the crank arm by a 4-40 set screw threaded through both parts.

9


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