FM 3 24, Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies .pdf

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FM 3-24
MCWP 3-33.5
INSURGENCIES AND
COUNTERING
INSURGENCIES

MAY 2014

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION:

Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online
(https://armypubs.us.army.mil/doctrine/index.html).
To receive publishing updates, please subscribe at
http://www.apd.army.mil/AdminPubs/new_subscribe.asp

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5, C1
Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 2 June 2014

Change No. 1

Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies
1.

Change 1 to FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5, 13 May 2014, amends text as necessary.

2.

A plus sign (+) marks new material.

3.

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5, 13 May 2014, is changed as follows:

Remove Old Pages

Insert New Pages

pages 1-13 through 1-14

pages 1-13 through 1-14

pages 2-3 through 2-4

pages 2-3 through 2-4

pages 4-1 through 4-2

pages 4-1 through 4-2

pages 4-5 through 4-6

pages 4-5 through 4-6

pages 4-11 through 4-12

pages 4-11 through 4-12

pages 7-5 through 7-10

pages 7-5 through 7-10

4.

File this transmittal sheet in front of the publication for reference purposes.

DISTRUBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5, C1
2 June 2014

By Order of the Secretary of the Army:

RAYMOND T. ODIERNO
General, United States Army
Chief of Staff
Official:

GERALD B. O’KEEFE
Administrative Assistant to the
Secretary of the Army
1414902

BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS:

DISTRIBUTION:
Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the
initial distribution number 121724, requirements for FM 3-24.
Marine Corps: PCN 143 000124 00

*FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5
Field Manual
No.3-24
Marine Corps Warfighting Publication
No. 3-33.5

Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC
Headquarters
Marine Corps Combat Development Command
Department of the Navy
Headquarters
United States Marine Corps
Washington, DC
13 May 2014

Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies
Contents
Page

PREFACE...............................................................................................................v
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................vii

PART ONE

STRATEGIC AND OPERATIONAL CONTEXT

Chapter 1

UNDERSTANDING THE STRATEGIC CONTEXT............................................ 1-1
United States’ Strategy and Policy to Counter an Insurgency ........................... 1-4
Land Forces and the Range of Military Operations ............................................ 1-6
Legitimacy and Control ....................................................................................... 1-8
Understanding Unified Action ........................................................................... 1-10
Strategic Principles ........................................................................................... 1-19

Chapter 2

UNDERSTANDING AN OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT ............................... 2-1
Demographic and Urbanization Trends.............................................................. 2-1
The Operational Variables .................................................................................. 2-2
The Mission Variables and Civil Considerations .............................................. 2-10

Chapter 3

CULTURE........................................................................................................... 3-1
Understanding Culture........................................................................................ 3-1
Assessing a Cultural Situation ............................................................................ 3-2
Organizing to Understand Culture ...................................................................... 3-4

Distribution Restriction: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
*This publication supersedes FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5, dated 15 December 2006.
Marine Corps PCN: 143 000124 00
i

Contents

PART TWO

INSURGENCIES

Chapter 4

INSURGENCY PREREQUISITES AND FUNDAMENTALS .............................. 4-1
Intrastate War...................................................................................................... 4-1
Insurgency Prerequisites .................................................................................... 4-3
Insurgency Fundamentals ................................................................................... 4-5
Other Analytical Frameworks ............................................................................ 4-22

Chapter 5

INSURGENCY THREAT CHARACTERISTICS ................................................. 5-1
Disposition and Activities .................................................................................... 5-1
Support Activities ................................................................................................ 5-3
Associated Threats ............................................................................................. 5-5

PART THREE COUNTERINSURGENCIES
Chapter 6

MISSION COMMAND AND COMMAND AND CONTROL ................................ 6-1
Command in Counterinsurgency ........................................................................ 6-1
Headquarters Use In Counterinsurgency ........................................................... 6-4
Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces Synchronization .............. 6-5

Chapter 7

PLANNING FOR COUNTERING INSURGENCIES ........................................... 7-1
Conceptual Planning ........................................................................................... 7-4
Transitions......................................................................................................... 7-10
Operational Considerations .............................................................................. 7-12
Information Operations ..................................................................................... 7-18

Chapter 8

INTELLIGENCE .................................................................................................. 8-1
Intelligence Fundamentals .................................................................................. 8-2
All-Source Intelligence ........................................................................................ 8-3
Human Intelligence ............................................................................................. 8-4

Chapter 9

DIRECT APPROACHES TO COUNTER AN INSURGENCY ............................ 9-1
Shape-Clear-Hold-Build-Transition Framework .................................................. 9-1
Other Direct Enablers ....................................................................................... 9-11

Chapter 10

INDIRECT METHODS FOR COUNTERING INSURGENCIES........................ 10-1
Nation Assistance and Security Cooperation ................................................... 10-1
Generational Engagement ................................................................................ 10-2
Negotiation and Diplomacy ............................................................................... 10-4
Identify, Separate, Isolate, Influence, and Reintegrate ..................................... 10-6
Other Indirect Enablers ................................................................................... 10-10

Chapter 11

WORKING WITH HOST-NATION FORCES .................................................... 11-1
Assessing and Developing a Host-Nation Force .............................................. 11-2
Relationships..................................................................................................... 11-6
Security Cooperation Planning ......................................................................... 11-8

Chapter 12

ASSESSMENTS ............................................................................................... 12-1
Assessment Frameworks .................................................................................. 12-1
Assessment Methods ........................................................................................ 12-2
Assessment Considerations ............................................................................. 12-2
Developing Measurement Criteria .................................................................... 12-3

ii

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5

13 May 2014

Contents

Chapter 13

LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................................ 13-1
Authority to Assist A Foreign Government ....................................................... 13-1
Rules of Engagement ....................................................................................... 13-2
Law of War ....................................................................................................... 13-2
Non-International Armed Conflict ..................................................................... 13-7
Detention and Interrogation .............................................................................. 13-8
Enforcing Discipline of U.S. Forces ................................................................ 13-10
Training and Equipping Foreign Forces ......................................................... 13-11
Commander’s Emergency Response Program .............................................. 13-12
Claims and Solatia.......................................................................................... 13-13
Establishing the Rule of Law .......................................................................... 13-13
SOURCE NOTES .......................................................................... Source Notes-1
GLOSSARY .......................................................................................... Glossary-1
REFERENCES .................................................................................. References-1
INDEX .......................................................................................................... Index-1

Figures
Figure 1-1. Country team command relationships ............................................................... 1-17
Figure 4-1. Conflict resolution model ................................................................................... 4-15
Figure 4-2. Organizational elements of an insurgency ......................................................... 4-16
Figure 4-3. Networked insurgencies ..................................................................................... 4-18
Figure 4-4. Examples of dyads ............................................................................................. 4-19
Figure 4-5. Examples of dyad networks ............................................................................... 4-21
Figure 4-6. Example of changes to tactics based on density shift ....................................... 4-22
Figure 7-1. Design concept .................................................................................................... 7-5
Figure 7-2. Sample of individual lines of effort ....................................................................... 7-9
Figure 9-1. The capability spectrum of counterinsurgency conflict ........................................ 9-5
Figure 9-2. Example of a possible transition framework ...................................................... 9-11
Figure 10-1. Generational engagement ............................................................................... 10-2
Figure 10-2. Negotiation and diplomacy............................................................................... 10-5
Figure 11-1. Host-nation security force meter ...................................................................... 11-5
Figure 11-2. Counterinsurgency command relationships ..................................................... 11-6
Figure 11-3. Country planning .............................................................................................. 11-9
Figure 11-4. Phases of building a host-nation security force ............................................. 11-11
Figure 13-1. Provisions binding high contracting parties ..................................................... 13-8

Tables
Table 1-1. Ends, ways, means, and risk in countering an insurgency ................................... 1-5
Table 2-1. Interrelated dimensions of the information environment ....................................... 2-8

13 May 2014

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5

iii

Contents

Table 11-1. Developing a host-nation security force ........................................................... 11-1
Table 11-2. Host-nation contributions ................................................................................ 11-13
Table 13-1. Extract of the Detainee Treatment Act of 2005 ................................................ 13-9

iv

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5

13 May 2014

Preface
Field Manual (FM) 3-24/ Marine Corps Warfighting Publication (MCWP) 3-33.5 provides doctrine for Army
and Marine units that are countering an insurgency. It provides a doctrinal foundation for counterinsurgency.
FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5 is a guide for units fighting or training for counterinsurgency operations.
The principal audience for FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5 is battalion, brigade, and regimental commanders and their
staffs. Commanders and staffs of Army and Marine Corps headquarters serving as joint task force or
multinational headquarters should also refer to applicable joint or multinational doctrine concerning the range of
military operations and joint or multinational forces. Trainers and educators throughout the Army and Marine
Corps will also use this publication.
Commanders, staffs, and subordinates ensure their decisions and actions comply with applicable United States
(U.S.), international, and, in some cases, host-nation laws and regulations. Commanders at all levels ensure their
Soldiers operate in accordance with the law of war and the rules of engagement. (See FM 27-10.)
FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5 implements standardization agreement (STANAG) 2611.
FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5 uses joint terms where applicable. Selected joint, Army, and Marine Corps terms and
definitions appear in both the glossary and the text. For terms and their definitions shown in the text, the term is
italicized and the number of the proponent publication follows the definition.
FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5 applies to the United States Marine Corps, the Active Army, Army National
Guard/Army National Guard of the United States, and United States Army Reserve unless otherwise stated.
The proponent of FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5 is the United States Army Combined Arms Center. The preparing
agency is the Combined Arms Doctrine Directorate, United States Army Combined Arms Center. Send
comments and recommendations on a DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank
Forms) to Commander, U.S. Army Combined Arms Center and Fort Leavenworth, ATTN: ATZL-MCK-D
(FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5), 300 McPherson Avenue, Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2337; by e-mail to
usarmy.leavenworth.mccoe.mbx.cadd-org-mailbox@mail.mil; or submit an electronic DA Form 2028.

13 May 2014

FM 3-24/MCWP 3-33.5

v


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