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CALCIUM METABOLISM STUDIES

A.

TBE

RAISING
OF

n.

OF

RAW

DISTURBANCES

SERUM
AND

CALCIUM

ACTIVATED

ASSOCIATED
OF

W ITH

CH I L D H OOD

W EST ON

AND

BY
COD

THE

TOPICAL
LIVER
A CT I VE

APPLICATIONS

OIL
DE NTAL

CARIES

PR EGNANC Y

A. PRICE,

D.D,S.

CU:'lEJ.ANlJ

Reprin ted f rom the American J ournal of Diseases of Children

January, 1927, Vol . 33, n . 78-95


CO P 'lk, IC UT , 192 7

AHE HI C ..... N

!'rIEDICAL A S ~OCJt\TrOl'l


FIVE HUN nRED AN D Tfi" lr.. T\' ·F JVE NORTH

DEARliORN

S T RE ET


CHICAGO

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No part of this research may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
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CALCIUM
A.

T HE

RA ISING
OF

IJ.

OF

RAW

DISTURBAN CES
OF

ME TA BO LISM

SERUM
AND

CAL CI U M

A CTlVATED

AS SOCIATED

W IT H

CH ILD HOOD

WESTON

A.

AND

ST U DIES

BY
COD

TUE

TOPICAL
LIVER
ACTlVE

P R EG N A N C Y

FiliCE,

APP Ll CATION S

OIL
DENTA L

CAR IES.

*'

D.D. S.

CLIOVELAN D

T ha t su ns h ine an d cod liver oil will markedl y a ffec t ca lcium m etab­
olism is altoge ther likely. T he processe s by which these effec ts are p ro ­
du ced a re but littl e un derst ood. Th e stud ies presented her e a re pa r t 0 f a
se r ies being m ad e to o bta in da ta to th ro w ligh t on th e nature of th e
forces at wo rk, and th e m echa nism s involved in the utili za tion of calc ium
by th e bod y w ith special con siderations of d isturban ces in calcium
meta bolism , pa r ticu larly th ose whic h re la te to tooth and bon e for ma tio n,
a nd deg en er ative changes in th ose st r uct ur es a f ter the ir d evelopm en t.
It bas been de monstra ted by ma ny wo rke rs, es pec ially by A lfred F.
H ess? Mi ld red Weinstock 2 an d H . S teenbock," th at wh en a n ima ls are
placed on a die t de ficien t in eithe r p hos p hor us or calcium in the a bse nce
of su nlig ht, dist urba nces of th e ha rd s tr uctu res tend to appear , an d th at
th ese may be p reve n ted or co rrected in larg e pa r t by the a dd ition of
sma ll amo u n ts of cod liver oil to th e di et, or the ap plica tion of ultra­
violet irradia tion fro m artificial so urce to th e s u rface o f the a nima l.
F ig ure 1 sho ws typical pr ogressive s tages in th e prod uc tion of leg
weakness in chickens, p rodu ced by placing th em in restricted light on a
diet low in p hosp ho r us and low in fa t so lub le vitam ins. T his conditio n
ca n be larg ely preven ted by th e ad m inist ratio n of cod liver oil wit h th e
diet, also by the applica tion o f ultra violet ligh t from th e qua r tz m ercu ry
vap or lam p. F igure 2 shows (A) a ch ick th at was down practicall y as
fla t as tbe 1110St ex tre me one sho wn in fig ure 1, an d when co d liver oil
wa s ad de d to its foo d got lip, as shown in B .
In orde r to demonst ra te th e nature of the ac tio n 0 E cod liver oil and
of ultra violet light , chicks hav e been s ubj ect ed to vary ing cond itions ,
T abl e 1 shows in conde nsed fo rm th e r esult o f placing tw enty- five g ro ups
of chicks with six in eac h gmu p, except the con tro l g roup wh ich con­

* Rea d befo re

the Na tiona l Acade my of Sc iences at W ash ing ton, D.

c., A pril

27, 1926.

1. Hess, A. F, : T he U lt ravio let Ra ys o f th e S UIl, J. A. M , A. 84: 1033
(Ap ri l 4) 1925,
2. H es s, A. F" a nd We instock, M ild re d : Lan cet 1 : 12 (Jan , 2) 1926.
3. Steen bock. H ,; Hart, E , B.; Se ll, M , T ., and J ones, J. H .: J. BioI. Chern.
56: 375 (June) 1923.

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2


F ig. I .-Progressi ve weakenin g of the legs o f a chi ck d epr ived o i ra diant
ene rg y, and on a d iet low in phosp horus a nd low in an tir achit ic fa cto r . Co nt rol,
up pe r le ft , had same d iet bu t occasional su nsh ine.

F ig. 2. -Two views o f the sa me c hic k o n a d iet low in phosp hor us a nd depr ived
o f ult ra vio let irrad iat ion . A , com pletely prost ra ted with ty pical wea k legs, B ,
s a llie c hick a few weeks la te r, a f ter cod l iver o il was ad de d to (he fo od. T he
leg def orm ity s hould be u otecl.

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3
tain ed fift een, namely, nine in lot 1, a nd 6 in lot 25. The first control
lot had as much sunshine as could be g iven during the day, a nd the last
had th ree hour s daily. All of these chicks were on the same basic diet
( McCo llum's, 3143 ) , the var ia tion being entire ly in activa tion or light
so urce . A ll except th e two control gro ups wer e kep t in darkness exce pt
for the turn ing on of rub y light twice daily for two hour s for feedin g.
T A.BLE I.- Com parativ e S tudies of Differen! M ethods [or Mo dif ying Treanne » t

of Chicks

0 11

Lo w Pho sph orus Diet ';' .

Death s During
_ . . . . ._D_a_Y_S_O_!_Ex
__._p_e_n_·m_en
_ _t
,
..
Va riab le Con di t ion

2 3 4 5 G

1 Oont ro ls.. .. ......... .. .. .. ...
2 Darkness and ru by la mp ... . .
3 Same as 2 plu s ultravlolct . .
dail y tor 30 minu res
4 Sa me as 3 plu s h luo filte r. . . . .
5 Snme as 3 plus hea vy win- . .
dow gl ass
G Same as 2 pl us co d liver o il . .
1 per cen l

7 Sa me as 6 b ut 0.1 per een t.. 1
8 Aet lva ted cod live r oil sun - 1
s hlne, 0.1 per eon t
9 Same as 8 b ut I per cen t.. _...
10 Oorl liver oi l activa ted 15 ..
m inut es . 0.) per cen t
11 Sa me as ) 0 bu t 1 per een t.. . 1
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19

20
21
22

23
2.[

25

..
..

.. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
1 2 ..

1 ..

1 1 ..

2 ..

2 1 ..

..

1 2..
2

2 .:
.. 1

0
3
3
6

Acti ve: well Iea the red
Ali de ad ; weak leg s
2 Ret arded gr o wt h

1 ..

1 ..

1 .. . . . . . . . .
1 .. ..

2 ..
2 ....

1

All dead ~ weak legs

Medium g ro wth


n

Medium g ro wt h
Med ium grow t h
Active ; m edi mu

..

1 ..

2

.. .. ..
.. 2 . .

..

.. ..
1 ..

..

..

.. ..

..

..

I

..

..

.. ..

All dead

0

~

2 Re tard ed grow Ul

5

Ret a rded g ro wth
Active ; well t eathered
Well fea there d; me­
d ium ae tl vity
3 Ac t ive ; de la yed fea th·

..

ers

2 Dela yed gr owth ; POOl'

2 ..
..

1 .'
1 ..

Act ive; weJ! fen the red

1

)
1 ..

1 2 ..

growt h
4 Act ive; well fea t bered

G

1 3

..

.. ..

Con dItJon

0 Acti ve; well rea t hered
0 Al l dead; we a k legs
3 Acti ve; welt Ieather ed

G

.. . . . . ..

2 .. . .
32 1

Co d live r oi l ac ti vated 6 . • . .
nours s unshin e, 0.1 per
cen e
Sa me as 12 ou t 1 per cen t
.
Same as 12 but 5 per cent
1 2
God liver o il aet iv a t ed. 1 2
uttruv lotet 3 h ours, 0.1
p er cen t
Sa m e as 15 bu t 1 per eent..; . . 1
Sa mo as 15 out. 5 per cen t.. . ....
Ra w cod liv er 0 11 5 per cent _. ..
Cod liver 0 11 acti va ted.
sunshine SO ml nu t es, rubbed on neck
Same 0 5 19; r a w eod liver
oi l
Cho les terol a e t J v a t e d
ult r a violet , 1 per cent
Same a.s ZJ. not ae riv ated ,
1 per cent
1 p er cent, parathyroid extr ac t
F ood ex po sed t o u tt r av tolet d aJiy
Ex posed 3 no ur s d ally to

Num ­
Num - ber
, ber L iv9 10 11 12 13 14 Dea el in g

.. .... .. u

-l ..

..

..

o

aeu ve

All dead

4

5 Med ium tca t be rcd:
tair aetiv ity
2 Delayed grow t h

o

o

.. ..
.. 2 1

at-tivlty
Med ium te a thered ;

3

Aetive ; well t aa t he red

suns h lne

• Na t ur e a n d erreer of ac ti va tors.
and tern per e.ture.

Six ch icks in ea c.b ~roup .

OU T L IN E

OF

All ha d snuie ad equate die t

PLA N

Group 1, cont ro l su nsh ine . Al l live d.
Gr oup 2, darkness an d rub y lig ht, p lus th e ba sic diet. A ll of these die d .
Gr oup 3, the sa me, plus ult ravi olet rays, for thirty minu tes dai ly; t h ree are
livin g and th ree are dead. Those al ive a re activ e an d well feathered
G rou p 4, the same as 3, plus blue filter. Th ree ar e dea d, and th ree Jiving ,
a ctive a nd we ll feather ed .

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4
Gro up 5, the sa me as 3, na mely, ult raviolet ra ys fo r thirty min utes da ily, plus
hea vy win dow g lass. A ll died . They had wea k legs.
Gro up 6, the same as 2, plus ] pe r cent cod liver oil. Fo ur are dead , tw o are
livi ng, but their gro wth was ret ar ded.
Gro up 7, the sa me as 6, wit h 0.1 of 1 per cent of cod liver oil. A ll died .
Gro up 8, 0.1 of I per cent of cod liver oi l activated in sunsh ine. Fou r are dea d,
two Jiving, with medium gro wth.
Gro up 9, t he same as 8, bu t with 1 per cen t of activated cod liver oil. F ive
are dead, one is living, with mediu m growth.
G roup 10, 0.1 of J per cent eod liver oi l act iva ted fo r fift een minutes wit h
ult raviolet rays. T hree a re dead and three living, wi th act ive and med ium g row th.
G ro up 1] , the same as 10, but wi th 1 per eent activated cod liver oil. T hree are
dead and th ree living, wit h ac tive aud med ium growth.
Group 12, 0.1 of 1 per cent cod liver oil act iva ted six hours in suns h ine, T wo
are dead ; four livi ng are activ e aud well feather ed,
Gro up 13, same as 12, but wi th 1 per cen t cod Iiver oil. O ne died; five living
are ac tive and well fea thered.
Gro up 14, sa me as 12, but wi th 5 per cen t of cod liver oil. A ll are dead.
Grou p 15, 0.1 o f 1 per Cent cod liver oil, activ ated for thr ee hour s. Fo ur are
dead ; two livin g, with ret arded grow th.
G rou p 16, the sam e as 15, but w ith 1 per cent o f cod liver oil. F ive are dead;
one is living, with retarded grow th.
Grou p 17, the same as 15, but with 5 per cent cod liver oil. One is dead ; five
are livin g, and are act ive and we ll f ea thered.
Gro up 18, 5 per cen t of ra w cod liver oil. Fi ve are dead; one is livin g, well
fea thered and wi th medium ac tiv ity.
Gro up 19, cod liver oil, ac tiva ted in su nsh ine for thi r ty minu tes, ru bbed on the
neck. Three are dead; three living, are ac tive, with de layed grow th of feathers.
Gro up 20, ra w cod liver oil r ubbed on nec k. F our are dea d; two are livin g,
wit h delayed growth and poor ac tiv ity .
Gro up 21, cholest erol activated with u lt ravio let ray, 1 per cent in f ood . T hree,
are dead; t hree living ar c med ium f eath ered and active.
Gro up 22, 1 per cen t nonactivatecl cod liver o il added to food. All died .
Group 23, 1 per cen t pa ra thyroi d extract. O ne is dead; five are living, medium
f eath ered and fai rly active.
Grou p 24, th e food was ex posed to ultraviolet rays daily. Fo ur a re dead; tw o
livin g, with de layed grow th .
Group 25, suns hi ne three hours d a ily. A ll lived.

It will be noted (rom these dat a that with nonactivated cholesterol
added to the food, all chickens died ; wit h the act iva ted choleste rol, th ree
lived. F urther, that wi th 5 per cent of cod liver oil, activated in ,J:he
sunshine for six hou rs, add ed to th e food, a ll died; f ur ther, th a t 'by ,
placing of heavy window glass in fr ont of th e ultravi olet to obstruc t the -.
rays, a ll chicks die d. It sho uld furth er be noted that cod liver oil,
activa ted th irty min utes in th e s unshine, ru bbed on the necks of th e
chick s, save d th r ee out of six and raw cod liver oil used th e same way
saved two out of six . One per cent o f fres hly made ext ract of pa ra­
thyroid added to th e food saved five out of six .
In or der to st udy furth er the nature of these pr ocesses, che mical
an alyses were mad e of th e blood to deter mine changes in cert ain of
th e calcium facto rs . T his is show n in tabl e 2, Fo r th ese Steen bock

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5

an d Ne lson's di et 2966 wa s used. In thi s series, 2 16 chicks we re used .
I will her e call attention particul arl y to th e fo llow ing:
T ABL E

2.-Blood Gild Lymph Che'1'Itkal S tudies of Chic ks by Growps
On l clum
r-r-:

Ohlcks

G nin,
'I'ot n l o l
p er Gent Serum

Die t 2906

1 Oo u trol s, su nshine .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . " ...... .
2 Ru by I ig n t, ... .. . . . ...... .... ... ..... .....
S Ulr r a v lo le t r a v, 20 minutes dniJy .... . . . . .
4 Ul t rav iolet my, 2 hours d~J1 y ...... . . . .... .
5 1% ruw co d li ver 0·1 1. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. ....

G
7

8
!!
10
11

12
IS
H
15

J6
17
18
J9
20
20
21
21

22

2.l
24
25

~%

r aw cod liver 0 11. .. .. .. ...... ...... . ..
10% r a w cod live" 011.... ....... .. ...... . .. .
1% co d liver oil . 1& min utes sunshine . . . . . .
r.% cod liver oil , 15 m inutes suns hine. . . . . .
HI% ca rl liver oil . 15 min utes sunshtne . . ...
1''70 cod l iv er 0 11, 1 h OUT su ns h ine . . . . . . . . ..
5'00/ cod li ver o il. 1 hou r su n sh in s .. . . . . . . . .
10% co d Ji ver oi l. 1 bour sunshine . . .. . . . . .
1% cod liv er oil . 24 ho u rs sunshine ...... ..
ho u r s sunsrune . .. . . . . .
5% co d li ver o il,
10% cod liv er oi l. 2·' hours sun shin e.... . . .
1% cod Ilver al l, 2 1 hour s ul tr-a vlo tet . . . . .
:,7" cod liv er oi l, 24 ho urs u ltr a.violet .. .. ..
W% cod liv er al l, 21 hou rs u ltravio-let . . .. .
Haw cod li v er o il o n nec ks .... . . . . . . , . . . . "
F luid from nec ks o f 20.. .. .. ...... .. . .... ..
Co d Jlver 011 30 mi n utes On Decks .... . . . ...
F lu id from neck o f 21. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. ... ..
fJ% raw cho les tero l.. . .. . . .. ... . . . .. .. . . . . ..
::1"/0 cholesterol, S() m lnu te s sunstune. . . . . ..
10% r a w b un er . , ... . . . . .. .. . . . . ... . . . .. .. .
l OCi;' b u t t er , 2'\ hours ul tr a viol ut . .. . . . . . . . .

2·'

C H EM ICA L

ss.a
15-1.7
m .o

'1.; .7
176.6
57,7
74.3
69. 2
78.03
55.05
85.2

9.96
10 .28
9 .2.;
8.03
fl.73

B.!!>
\U5
lO.90
13. 13
lO.07
20.2 1

-'-------­
Acti ve
8.H
8 .30
8.30
8.13
6 GO
8.33
8.13
8.82
10.02
10.22

Inor Tota l
g~n ic
Ca lcium x
Phu sI no rga ni c
p horus Pbospaorus
4.52
J .83

4.\ 0

45.00

49.05

37.0'2­

·J.lO

a4.m


U.33
5.2G

61.50

·17.19

27.40

34.55

38.48

22.48
46.82
37.67
31.62
42.18
37.20

z.su

77.3

D.6 j

70.8
72.!!
76.0
67.2133.1
W .W
36.8
6.S

l IA 3
U.S7

7.(,>J
8.32
8.66

3.17
2.93
2.10
2.22
3.90
2.77
3.71

HU 5
9.72

S .5~

3.Ut

8 .82

6.84.

10.0a
10.42

6.60
8.3i

3 .01
5.45
4.85
l.O.

;'4.10

1 0. ~A

2..13

32.35

2.24
4.77
5.40

20.91
48 .00
63.13
4G.51

,am
1.1
20. \
62.2
50.8

59.07
53.16
20.20

1.1.25

18.07
15. 04
27.101
9.35
10.25

u .cs
8 .95

14.19
10.22
18. 09

8.92
7 .25
6 .75

~ . 20

A N ALY SI S

T he average total ca lcium 0 1 the contro ls was 9 .9, the active 8 .1, and
the ino rganic phosphoru s 4.5. Of t he chicks und er treatm ent, several-have
had distin ctly high er total calcium than the contro ls. For example, th ose
receivin g 5 p er cent cod live r oil act iva ted in th e sun Ior fift een minutes
had a total calcium of 13.1. O ne of the m eth od s of investigati on of the
influ en ce of cod liver oil was to rub it on a limited por tion of the chicken's
body, as, fo r example, th e n eck. T his had a very mark ed effec t on th e
level of th e calc ium of th e blood and on th e ge nera l phys ica l condition
of th e chicks. T he a ver age total calcium of the blood of thi s g ro up
was 11.2, wh ereas th e average tot al calcium of th e co ntro ls was
9 .9. Th e chic ks of a no ther gro up we re t reat ed similar ly with th e cod
liver oil on th e neck, except tha t it had been activa ted in t he sun f or
thirty minutes. Th e ave rage to tal ca lcium of the blood of th e chicks of
thi s gro up was 15.
. The in organic ph osph orus wa s a lso influ enced by the va rious meth ods
o f th e utili zat ion of cod liver oil. T he aver age in th e con trol g roups
was 4.5, and of th e g ro up receiv ing 5 pe l' cent raw cod liver oil in th e
f ood th e average was 5.2. The g ro up receivi ng ac tivate d cod liver oil on
th e necks had an inor ganic phosph oru s o f 2.1.

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6

Similar st udies wer e made by ma king topical applicati ons of
cholestero l. The ave rage total calcium of the group r eceiving applica­
tions of 5 per cent nonactivat ed cholestero l was 9.3, wher eas another
g roup receiving the same meth od of tr eatment and material, exce pt
that it was activated in the sun for thirty minutes, had an average total
calcium of 10.2.
S everal of the chicks th at were havin g cod liver oil rubbed .on th eir
necks in each of th e diffe re nt groups deve loped lar ge cystic sacs filled
with sero us fluid. This fluid was aspir at ed, pooled tog ether for each
g roup, and calcium de term inations were made. As the cir culating lymph,
spinal, pleuritic and ascitic fluids have total calcium levels from 40 to 60
per cent of th at of th e total calcium of th e blood, and since the total
calcium of th ese serums has corresponded approxim ately in am ount with
th e diffusible calcium of the blood, it has been sugges ted that the diff er­
ences in level of calcium in these seru ms and th e blood are controlled by
th e d iffusion through the tissues, the colloida l calcium being held back
by th e ti ssues. I have alrea dy stated that th e total calcium of the blood
of these serums was high er than that of th e control, namely, 11.2 and 15,
while the control wa s 9.9. If now one would anticipa te the same gener al
relationships between blood calcium and cystic fluid, as in ascites and
lymph , he would hav e fac tors 'approx imately half of 11 and IS. Con­
tr ary to ex pectations , the avera ge total ca lcium of th e fluid fr om th e
neck of th e gr oup r eceivin g raw cod liver oil appli ed topically was 18.9.
inst ead of 5 or 6, and fo r the g roup having th e ac tivated cod, liver oil
applied locally the ave ra ge was 27, instead of 7 or 8. In other word s,
in the second gro up the total calcium level of th e fluid in the neck was
nearl y twice that of th e total calcium c f th e blood , instead of half.
ME CHA N I SM

OF

AC TI VATION

T his seems to throw an impo rt ant new light on the mechanism of"
activat ion. Had a calcium sa lt been applied with cod liver oil, raw or
act ivated, one migh t think that the calcium was abs orb ed by th e tissue
being tr eat ed. Since, however , in this case, the calcium of th e aspirated
fluid was high er than that of th e blood st rea m, and since no calcium
could reach this fluid exce pt th rough the blood st ream, th er e mu st have -.
been established in the chicks a cond ition of incr eased solubility f or .
calcium in thi s fluid , which in turn influenced th e blood to brin g th e
total blood calcium high er than tha t of th e con trols. T his a lso indicates
that this fluid had a solubility factor higher tha n that 0 f the blood to
ta ke calcium fro m th e blood to it.
From the foregoing, it will be noted that ex posing the cod liver oil
and cholesterol to radiant energy, sunshine or ultra violet l-ays, changes
in a ma rked degree the effect 'p roduced by th e use 0 f the oil or cholesterol.

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or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Visit http://ppnf.org for more information.

7
a nd, furthe r, tha t overe xposu re prod uced deleterious effects . Ev idence
has been presen ted to th e effect tha t butt er ex posed to ultra violet irr adia­
tion for seve ral hou rs wa s mad e disti nctl y poisonous tor mic e, though
this obser vation wo uld indicat e tha t it was not poison ous f or chick s.
I n orde r to st udy fu rth er the effect of u ltr a violet ir radia tion, cod
li ver o il, so exposed, has been f urther stud ied as follows : 'W hen
ord ina ry ra w cod liver oil is placed in a d ish, a nd a p hotographic pla te
is placed over th e d ish, the chemical action prod uces fogg ing of the
emu lsion, which is decrea sed by decreasing temp era ture, a nd incr eased
by increasing tem perature, as shown in figure 3. A was placed in the
icebox , but B in th e incu ba tor for a n equa l period of tim e. /l had a n
obstruc tion ma de of tissu e pap er in va ry ing t hick nesses , pr ogressing

Fig. 3.- C1ouding of a photog r a phic plat e produ ced by cod liver oil f rom
hy d r ogen di o xid e for rna t ion.

f r0111 1 to 20 layer s. T hese t went y lay ers obstr uc ted com p letely t he
gaseous substa nce which produced the che mical action. In B the obstruc­
tion was a p iece of card . T his photogra phic effect is no t produced by
rad iant ene rg y given off by the oil, but by ga ses, t he chief of wh ich is
hydrogen diox ide . 'W he n cod liver o il is ex posed to ultr a violet ligh t or
sunsh ine, this cap aci ty for cloud ing a phot og raph ic plate is ve ry mar kedly
increased , as shown in fig ur e 4 . Two differen t brands ( A a nd B) of
cod liver oil were used , and the figur es 1 to 8 show progressively th e
ex pos ures for th e Io llow ing unit s of time:
1.
2.
3.
4.
S.
6.
7.
8.

Not exp osed to ult ra violet ra y.
E x posed to ul tr avi olet r ay for five m inu tes.
E xp osed to ult ra vio let ra y for ten minu tes.
E xpo sed t o ul tr aviolet ray for fi ft een m inu tes.
Exposed to ultra vio let ra y for tw enty mi n ut es.
E xposed to ultra viole t ray fo r thi r ty minutes.
E x posed to ultra violet r ay for {a r ty m inutes .
Exposed to ult ra violet ray fo r sixt y min utes.

Copyright © Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation. All rights reserved.
No part of this research may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Visit http://ppnf.org for more information.

In a subseq uen t comm unication will be report ed s tudies made o f a
lar ge number of organic compo unds , ch iefly tissue ex trac ts, only one o f
which is inclu ded her e. I n figure 5 is sho wn t he effec t of exposing a n
extract o r pan creas in "E" to ultra violet rays for m a mercury vapo r lam p
[or thirty mi nutes, a nd in " C" to suns hine fo r one hour, in compa rison
with the same shown in "A" with out expos u re . It is imp or tan t to not e
the mar ked diffe rence in effec t of the ul tra violet ra ys from th e quartz

Fig. 4. -Progressive inc rease ill ca pacity o f cod liver oi l to cloud a phot o­
g ra ph ic pl at e, w it h in crea se of time of exposu re of oil to sunsh ine o r ultr avi ol et
ir radi at io n.

vapo r lamp a nd that of sunshine . The admin ist ra tion of calc ium lactate
with coel liver oil pr odu ces entirely di fferen t effec ts, both clinically and
as expressed in ch emi cal cons titue nts o f th e blood from th e admin istra ­
tion o f either of these subs tances alone.
I ha ve ma de obse rvations to de ter m ine the effect on th e ability o f
cod liver oil to cloud a pho tog rap hic plate, with and witho ut the addi tion
of calc ium lact at e, In figu re 6 th ree views ar e show n: A, cod live r oil

Copyright © Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation. All rights reserved.
No part of this research may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording,
or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Visit http://ppnf.org for more information.


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