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UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE INTERNATIONAL EXAMINATIONS
General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level

2059/02

PAKISTAN STUDIES
Paper 2

May/June 2010
1 hour 30 minutes

Additional Materials:

Answer Booklet/Paper

*4594472093*

READ THESE INSTRUCTIONS FIRST
If you have been given an Answer Booklet, follow the instructions on the front cover of the Booklet.
Write your Centre number, candidate number and name on all the work you hand in.
Write in dark blue or black pen.
Do not use staples, paper clips, highlighters, glue or correction fluid.
Answer any three questions.
Sketch maps and diagrams may be drawn wherever they serve to illustrate an answer.
The Insert contains Photograph A for Question 3 and Photograph B for Question 4.
At the end of the examination, fasten all your work securely together.
Write the number of each question attempted in the grid on the front cover of your Answer Booklet.
The number of marks is given in brackets [ ] at the end of each question or part question.

This document consists of 8 printed pages and 1 insert.
DC (SM/CGW) 15358/3
© UCLES 2010

[Turn over

2
1

(a) Study Fig. 1 which shows a map of forest types in Pakistan.

N
A

A

Key

B

D

forest
international boundary
disputed international
boundary
coastline
0
km
400
C

E

Fig. 1
(i)

Name the forest types found in each of the areas A, B and C.

[3]

(ii)

Name the sea D and the line of latitude E.

[2]

(iii)

Explain why the forest type A grows naturally in cool, hilly areas.

[3]

(iv)

Why is it important that forests by the coast are protected?

[4]

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10

3
(b) Study Fig. 2.

leaves and branches
intercept the rainfall

leaves fall, decompose
seeds grow
and mix with the soil
into young trees
water flows on
the surface and
through the soil

roots grow down
through the soil and into
the rocks below
water moves
through the ground
Before deforestation

tree stump
tree stump

more water flows on
the surface
tree stump

less water moves
through the ground

After deforestation
Fig. 2
With reference to Fig. 2, explain how deforestation can cause soil erosion.

[5]

(c) There has been development of forests in lowland areas of Punjab and Sindh using irrigation.
(i)

Why is irrigation necessary for new plantations of trees?

(ii)

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of developing more irrigated plantations of
trees in lowland areas of Punjab and Sindh.
[6]

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10

[2]

[Total: 25]
[Turn over

4
2

(a) Study Fig. 3, which shows the areas of cultivation for four main crops in Pakistan.
10,000

8,000

6,000
Area of crop
(1000 hectares)
4,000

2,000

0
wheat

rice

maize

sugar cane

Fig. 3
(i)

Which crop covers the greatest area?

[1]

(ii)

What is the area covered by this crop?

[1]

(iii)

Name two other food crops grown in Pakistan not shown on the graph.

[2]

(b) (i)

Describe the methods of cultivation of wheat on barani (rain-fed) lands.

[5]

(ii)

Explain the advantages and disadvantages to wheat farmers of modern irrigation
methods such as perennial canals and tubewells.
[5]

(c) Waste products from food crops such as straw from cereals and bagasse from sugar cane
have some uses.
Explain the importance of waste products such as these. You may refer to those crops shown
in Fig. 3 or others.
[3]
(d) Read the extract below.

The farming land in barani areas such as the Potwar Plateau is subjected to soil erosion,
overgrazing, and desertification due to poor farm management.
This leads to low crop productivity, poor quality livestock and low farm incomes.

(i)

What reasons does the writer give for the low farm incomes in barani areas?

[3]

(ii)

Explain these and other causes of low farm incomes in Pakistan.

[5]
[Total: 25]

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10

5
3

(a) (i)
(ii)

Name three ways by which coal is mined.

[3]

Why is coal produced in Pakistan described as low quality?

[3]

(b) Study Photograph A (Insert), which shows a brickworks near Kanai, Balochistan Plateau.
Describe the main features of the brickworks shown in the photograph.
[4]
(c) Study Fig. 4, which shows the location of Pipri steelworks.
N
Site for township
Main

road

Kotri

Main line Karachi–

Steel
mill

Raw
materials

Slag

Widened
channel

Port Qasim

G

Ber ths

o Cree
h ar
k
Key

0

1

road
railway
conveyor belt

2
km
Fig. 4

(i)

Name three raw materials used in production of steel.

[3]

(ii)

With reference to Fig. 4, explain why the steel mill was located here.

[6]

(d) Read the extract below.
Imports of steel increased by 37% from 2004 to 2005 as a growing amount of
machinery and industrial steel products flowed in.
This amount is higher than any government predictions.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of increasing steel production in Pakistan.

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10

[6]

[Total: 25]
[Turn over

6
(a) Study Fig. 5, which shows the exports of Pakistan in 1997 and 2007 by percentage (each
dash on the circumference represents 10%).

sports
goods

synthetic
textiles

others

others

sports
goods
cotton

rice

cotton
synthetic
textiles

er

h
at

rice

le

le
at
he
r

4

2007

1997
Fig. 5
(i)

In 2007, what percentage of the exports was cotton?

[1]

(ii)

Suggest reasons why cotton makes up a large percentage of Pakistan’s exports.

[3]

(iii)

From Fig. 5, state:
A
one export that has increased in percentage,
B
two exports that have decreased in percentage.

[3]

(b) Study Photograph B (Insert), showing Landhi Export Processing Zone, Karachi.
(i)

What features show that this is a modern, developed industrial estate?

[4]

(ii)

Explain the importance of Export Processing Zones.

[4]

(c) Study Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
(i)

(ii)

Give two advantages of transporting goods by:
A bullock cart,
B lorry.

[4]

To what extent would the building of more motorways, such as that between Lahore and
Islamabad, help the development of industry in Pakistan?
[6]
[Total: 25]

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10

7
5

(a) Study Fig. 7, which shows the desert climate of Nok Kundi.
40

200

30

150

temperature
20
(°C)

rainfall
100 (mms)

10

0

50

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun

Jul

Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

0

Months
Fig. 7
(i)

With reference to Fig. 7, describe the yearly distribution of temperature and rainfall in a
desert climate.
[5]

(ii)

Explain how the climate of desert areas affects agricultural and industrial development.
[6]

QUESTION 5 CONTINUES ON PAGE 8

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10

[Turn over

8
(b) Study Fig. 8, which shows a population pyramid for Pakistan for 2006.

male

age
60 and
over
55-59

female

50-54
45-49
40-44
35-39
30-34
25-29
20-24
15-19
10-14
5-9
0-4

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
percentage of
total population

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
percentage of
total population

Fig. 8
(i)

What percentage of the total population is aged 4 years and under?

[1]

(ii)

Which age group has the largest percentage?

[1]

(iii)

What is the percentage of the total population aged 60 years and over?

[1]

(iv)

Which age groups are called ‘the dependent population’?

[2]

(c) Study Fig. 8 again.
(i)

How is the shape of the population pyramid for Pakistan likely to change from 2006 to
2026?
[3]

(ii)

The changing shape of the population pyramid affects Pakistan’s workforce both now
and for the future.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of the changes.
[6]
[Total: 25]

Copyright Acknowledgements:
Question 1
Question 3
Questions 3 & 4

© Oxford School Atlas for Pakistan ; Oxford University Press; 2008.
© H N Sethi; The Environment of Pakistan ; Peak Publishing; 2003.
Photographs; Estate of Roland Strutt; © UCLES.

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the Cambridge Assessment Group. Cambridge Assessment is the brand name of University of
Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department of the University of Cambridge.

© UCLES 2010

2059/02/M/J/10


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