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SOCIALISM
it;

IN
4!

4

ONE COUNTRY
1926

A HISTORY OF SOVIET RUSSIA

SOCIALISM
IN

ONE COUNTRY
1924-1926
BY

EDWARD HALLETT CARR
VK1.I.OW

OF TRINITY fOU.KtiK, C'AMimttKiK

VOLUME ONE

NEW YORK
THE MACMILE.AN COMPANY
1958

Copyright

<O

Edward HaHett Cart 195H

Ail rights reserved

reproduced

in

any

no part oC this txx>k may
form "without permission

tx*

in

writing fiom the puhlisher, except by a reviewer
who wishes to quote brief passages in connection
with a review written for inclusion in magaiific* or

newspaper,
First Printing

Printed in the United States of America

Ubratry of Congresai catalog card number: 5fc*l<UO

PREFACE
THE

present volume, the

Country^ K)24 igs6

%

first

brings

of three under the

me

said in the preface to the first

to

title

the heart of

One
As J

Socialism in

my

subject.

volume of The Bolshevik Revolution,

ambition was "to write the history, not of the revolution
political, social and economic order which emerged from
it".
The volumes hitherto published have been, in a certain sense,
preliminary to this main purpose. While history knows no hard-andfast frontiers between periods, it is fair to say that the new order
resulting front the revolution of 1917 began to take firm shape only in
the middle ninetecn-twcntics.
The years 1924-1926 were a critical
/9/7--/0J.7,

.

.

.

my

but of the

turning-point, and gave to the revolutionary regime, for good and for
decisive direction.

evil, its

By way of introduction to this central section, four chapters have
been grouped together under the general title "The Background'*, In
the first, I have attempted to define the relation of the revolution to
Russian history, which first became clearly apparent in this period
(part of this chapter appeared in the volume of Essays Presented to SVr
I*etoi$ Namier in
1956) ; in the second, to illustrate the moral and

climate of the period by drawing on peripheral fields
in the third, to investigate the
neglected in the earlier volumes
in
obscure and crucial issue of the motive forces of the new society
the fourth, to portray the personal characteristics of some of the prinintellectual

;

;

and

to indicate the place which they occupy in the story.
of the volume is devoted to the economic history of the
period from the spring of 1924 to the spring of 1926* In the second
volume, the sixth of the whole scries, I shall describe the party struggle
leading to the break-up of the triumvirate and to the first defeat of
cipal actors

The remainder

Zioovkv, and the

political and constitutional development** of the
following volume will deal with external relations,
An always, the most difficult problem of presentation has been that
of arrangement. Precedence has been given to the* narrative of eco-

period,

The

nomic developments
for, though the rivalry between party leaders
was the mtmt conspicuous, and superficially the moat dramatic, feature of
these yenrs the form* which it t<x*k were dependent on haste economic
This arrangement, though riccejuuiry, hsti the disadvantage
issuea.
;

k

PREKACE

vi

that I have been obliged to touch in this volume on certain aspects
of the party struggle and of relations between the party leaders, the
main treatment of which is reserved for the next volume. Even within
In
the economic chapters some overlapping could not he avoided.

order to make the material manageable, different sectors of the economy
had to be treated separately yet it was obvious that current problems
and current decisions of policy, even if they ostensibly related to one
;

had repercussions on the other sectors. If the chapter on
this is no doubt in part
agriculture in this volume is by far the longest,
a just tribute to the predominance of agriculture in the Soviet economy
and in the preoccupations of Soviet politicians. But it is also due in
part to the fact that, since this is the first of the economic chapters,
sector,

issues that cut across

all

sectors of the

economy

arise here for the first

time, and call for general treatment here rather than later.
indulgence for some repetitions and for a perhaps tedious

I must ask
abundance

of cross-references.

The

progress of the work has produced, as generally happens, a
of the complexity of the issues with which I am dealing.
sense
growing
What I take to be the conventional view of Soviet history in the years
after the revolution,

i.e.

that

it

was the work of determined men

enlightened pioneers on one view, hardened villains on another

knew

exactly

who

what they wanted and where they were going, seems

to

me

almost wholly misleading. The view commonly expressed that the
Bolshevik leaders, or Stalin in particular, were inspired primarily by
the desire to perpetuate their rule, is equally inadequate.
No doubt
every government seeks to retain its authority as long as po&Bthlc, But
the policies pursued were not by any means always those apparently
most conducive to the undisturbed exercise of power by those in
possession. The situation was so complex, and varied so much from
place to place and from group to group of the population, that the task
of unravelling the decisive factors in the process hm been

unusually

This is a field where material is abundant* but often vague
and sometimes contradictory, and where I have had few predecessors
and few signposts to follow
few specialist studies have yet twn
written on particular points or aspects of the
story. This mail be
baffling.

;

my

excuse for cumbering some parts of my narrative with,
perhapit, an
unnecessary profusion of detail I have preferred to run the rik of
including the superfluous rather than of omitting features which may

prove significant when a more complete picture finally emerges*
A lengthy visit to the United States in the winter of 1956 1957
delayed the completion of this volume, but enabled PIC to obtain much

PREFACE

vii

it and for its successor.
The Russian
Harvard offered rne generous hospitality and

additional material both for

Research Center

at

it gives me particular pleasure to record
my warm
of
the
help and kindness which I received from Professor
appreciation
William Lunger, the director, Mr. Marshall Shulman, the deputy

assistance

and

;

from other members of the Center. The Widener
Library at Harvard are both rich in Soviet
material of the period, and I was privileged to work on the Trotsky
director, as well as

Library and the

archives

Fischer

which

Law

preserved
is

will

the Houghton Library:
Professor George
preparing a catalogue of the Trotsky archives,

in

at present

make them more

reference to them.

readily accessible

and

facilitate

In addition to the Harvard libraries

1

systematic
visited the

New York Public Library and the Hoover
was also able to borrow from the Library of
Congress and from Columbia University Library; the Library of
Brandeis University (where 1 lectured during the first semester of my
stay) gave me invaluable help in locating books for me and borrowing
them on my behalf, I should like to express my warm thanks to the
unrivalled collections of the

Library at Stanford,

librarians of

all

I

these institutions and their

staffs,

1

am

particularly

indebted to Professor Herbert Mareuse of Brandeis University for
to Mrs. Olga Gankm
stimulating discussion of theoretical problems
of the Hoover Library for much detailed help and advice in the pursuit
;

of rare sources; to Dr. S, Heitman for the loan of his unpublished
and to many other American
bibliography of Bukharin's writings
friends who have given me in many different forms valued assistance
;

and encouragement.
While, however, the final stages of research for this volume were
United States, the foundations were laid in this

carried out in the

country, and it in here that most of the work has been done. Mr, J. C. W,
Home and the staff of the Reading Room of the British Museum have

once more been unfailingly helpful
and the resources of the Museum
have been supplemented by those of the libraries of the London School
;

of Economic*, of the School of Slavonic Studies and of the Department
of Soviet Institution* in the University of Glasgow, Corning nearer

home, Cambridge University Library him a most useful collection*
recently supplemented by fresh acquisitions, of microfilms of Soviet
document* and periodical*
and the Marshall Library of Economic*
the
p<me*sti
copy prevented to the late Lord Keyne* in Moscow in
;

~

September 1925 of the extremely rare firat f V>fr0/ Figures of CJosplan
the volume described cm p. 501 below.
The Librarian and SubLibrarian of Trinity College have earned

my

special gratitude

-

by the

PREFACE

viii

kindness and patience with which they have met
for borrowings from other libraries.

my

extensive requests

this preface intolerably if I were to name all those
one way or another, by lending me pamphlets or
books, by drawing my attention to sources which I had overlooked, or
by discussing the problems of the period, provided me with fresh
material or fresh stimulus. I hope they will forgive me for acknowledging their generous help in this global and anonymous expression
of thanks, which is none the less sincere. I should, however, particularly
mention Mr. R. W. Davies, author of a recently published book on
The Soviet Budgetary System, who has given me help in the financial
chapter. Mrs. Degras has once more put me in her debt by undertaking
the laborious task of proof-reading
Dr. Ilyu Neustudt ban again
rendered indispensable assistance to the render and to myself hy
and Miss J. K. Morris bore a major part of the
compiling the index
burden of typing this and earlier volumes.
Since I have worked on this volume and its successor more or lens
It

would prolong

friends

who have

in

;

;

simultaneously, the latter is now Hearing completion, and should he
published next year. The third volume, dealing with external relations,
will, if

my

present hopes and intentions are fulfilled, be substantially
and should not long be delayed, A biblio-

briefer than the other two,

graphy

will

appear

at the

end of the third volume.
K.

May

28, 1958

H. (,'ARR

CONTENTS
PART

I

THE BACKGROUND
PAGE

Chapter

i.

THE

LKOA<'Y OF HISTORY

3

2.

THR CHANGING OUTLOOK

23

(A)

The Family
The Orthodox Church

(r)

Literature

(</)

Law

(a)

3.

CLASS AND PARTY

4.

PERSONALITIES
(a)

Trotsky

(/>)

Zinoviev

(r)

Kamenev

(*/)

Kukharin

(f)

Stalin

89
137

PART

I!

THH ECONOMIC REVIVAL
AUHI*TLTI KK
?

5.

The

Hurvcnt of

(A)

The

Issue in the

(</)

The Wagrr on the* Kulak
The Harvent of u)Z5

(r)

'I*he rru'eruirt

(r)

6.

189

(AT)

!Ntx?HTRY

Pronpect

329


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