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OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
Equinox

(interval 365.2422 days)

by Solar Alignment Observation

God, through Moses, ordained the first month of the Jewish calendar year
to start in spring. Many writers consider the date of this first month start as
a great mystery.
The Hebrew word for 'month' and 'new moon' are interchangeable and
translated by context. Each new moon was to be celebrated by trumpets;
Nu10:10, Ps81:3, 2Ch2:4.
This was practiced from Moses, at least thru the time of Paul's epistles,
Col2:16. The ancient means to select when the 1st month of each new year
started has been avidly discussed by many writers.
This month shall be unto you the beginning of months: it shall be the first
month of the year to you.... keep this ordinance in ITS SEASON from year
to year, Ex12:2,13:10 .

And Moses was learned in ALL the wisdom of the Egyptians... Acts 7:22
Indeed it is a mystery, if the ancient‟s time keeping method of simple
alignment is not understood. Much ink has been used talking of the Barley
harvest.

1

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
But finding the first solar month could
be accomplished from the Temple
Mount by watching where the sunrise
happened in east upon Mount Olivet.
This is illustrated in the prior picture.
Another method is to use a gnomon or
obelisk. This was widely employed by
the Egyptian culture to find time,
direction and seasons. The method is
illustrated by the attached pictures.
During desert travels, after the
Exodus, the tabernacle was to be
erected with principle ordinates.
The ordinates were easily
obtained by use of a gnomon,
that could also serve to mark
the spring equinox.
“for the south side.... And for
the second side of the
tabernacle on the north side
there
shall
be
twenty
boards..
tabernacle,
westward..” Ex26:18-27. For
the
Christian
era,
this
importance is two fold. First
is to know that a bible year is
a solar year.

Use a BAY
To improve
shadow
definition

Second is in keeping Church
Calendar. For that calendar is
set by Easter and it shall be the
1st Sunday following the 1st Full
Moon after the Spring or Vernal
Equinox of each year.
2

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
Great
Egyptian culture (of Moses time) used such methods as

The
illustrated by the Pyramid alignments on principle
ordinates. Many other ancient cultures also used monument
markers to mark the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn,
and winter.

The Mosaic holidays revolved around spring and autumn.
Three main holidays were given by Moses. First was Passover,
with main dates on 10th and 14th day of 1st month. Next was
Pentecost, Lev23:16, Count 50 days to the day after the 7th
Sabbath; then you shall offer.. & last as: „In the 7th month,
on the 1st day of the month, you shall have a Sabbath-rest, a
memorial of blowing of trumpets.. Lev23:24. Marking time
was mandated by the Sabbath or 7th year and Jubilee or 50th
year & 7 day week by a 7th Holy Rest vs Egypt 10day week.
The Sothic calendar system (365 days, circa 3,000BC) started
at Heliacal rising of Sirius upon Summer Solstice, June20±.
They Intercalated the last days of a year. The current
rabbinical calendar, has 365.2468days/Year. Only the 1st to
7th months were critical to the ancient Hebrew calendar. The
time after the 12th month unto the start of the next year
new month could be counted as intercalated days, with an
ignored month, if only interested in months 1 to 7.

North
Khufu
Sphinx

EAST
South

Great

3

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
Another way is to make an extra long 12th
month. No where in bible is mention of a
13th month, hence Adar2. But a leap
month is required in a lunisolar calendar. A
new year should start in 1st lunar month
where the 14th lunar day falls on or after
the spring equinox. This makes "days per
year cycles" of 353/355 and 383/385 days.
About every 3rd year will be a leap year of
about 384 days. Counting of these days fall
into 3 methods. Strictly observational says
watch for the time of equinox, then look
for the new moon. The lunar cycle length
(29/30 days comes from Ur of Chaldeans.
Solar year count of 365d was known in
Egypt. By these facts an end of year
estimate is had for the 1st new moon of a
new year. Lastly is the 4th century
rabbinical calendar, molad method of
365.2468day/Year,
vs.
16th
century
Gregorian calendar of 365.2425 d/Y.
Bible Basis of 12 Months:
1Kgs4:7 “... twelve officers over all
Israel... each man his month in a year...”
1Ch27, 12months1year, “all the months of
the year...The twelfth captain for the
twelfth month.” The sacred duties were
divided into 24 groups, this suggests
rotation of a group every 2 weeks.

Twelfth month: had at least 27 days as seen by 2Kg25:27, it
was given the name of Adar, see Est3:7&13,8:12,9:1. Here an
eleventh month of 29 days is found by inclusive count,
Neh6:15, 52 less 25 days equal 27 plus the start stop days of 2
gives 29 days. Also in story of Noah are found 5 months of 30
days each, Gen7:11,24 & 8:3-4. This indicates bible months
are lunar months. For the lunar month must alternate 29 and
30 days to match the 29.5 days of average lunar period.

Equinox Sunset
Alignment at Giza
Looking due West
Khufu

w

Sphinx
N

S
E

4

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
Marking time by equinox of the two seasons has the
least long term jitter. Long term Jitter is caused by
earth polar precession, as demonstrated by below
graphic. Moses used the most stable year start marker.

Stonehenge is one
of many known
archeoastronomy
sites. It was used
to mark seasons.
Researcher J. Q.
has
Jacobs
documented these
sites extensively.

Refs:
https://www.fourmilab.ch/earthview/pacalc.html
http://judaicseminar.org/halakhot/calendar jewish.htm
https://www.fourmilab.ch/documents/calendar/
http://www.knowth.com/loughcrew.htm
https://stellafane.org/misc/equinox.html
http://www.lavia.org/english/archivo/egyptiancalendaren.
html
http://www.michaelsheiser.com/PaleoBabble/IslerMethod
OfFindingExtendingDirection.pdf

Only at equinoxes does sun
rise due east and set due
west.
5

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016

6

Marking Years by Astronomical Moments of Equinox and New Moon: The first new moon of each new
year is selected so the 14th day (full moon) must fall on or after the Spring Equinox. This causes the
lunar months to cycle in a progression of 400 Years of 12 lunar months to about 233 years of 13 lunar
months. By using observation, the years of 12 and 13 moons will be automatically selected from the
determination rule. Over increasing intervals (19,38,190,391) the average length of a year will trend
towards 365.2422 days. This is demonstrated by graph above. In whole days, average results are same.

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
Egyptian tools at time of Moses
Equinox Sunrise at Giza

East

West

North

7

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
The Solar Lunar cycles are times periods that give
repeating calendar cycles. The older cycles are the Saros,
(18 Year) and Metonic, 19Y. Some other whole year cycles
are Half Sar, 9Yr, Unidos, 65Y, 176Y, 298Y. Longer Cycles
are Trihex, 195Y, Hipparchus, 345Y, Gregorian1, 353Y,
Gregoriana 372Y, Hexdodea 390Y, Grattan Guinness
391Y, Gregorian2, 725Y, 1042Y.Any multiple of smaller
cycles can be tried, like double basic 1042Y.
Meton's cycle of 19 years harmonizes the solar year (19 solar years)
with the lunar month (235 lunar months) with a remainder of about 2
hours and 3 minutes by which the solar year finishes earlier than the
lunar. Another cycle is 190 or 10 Metons.
M. de Cheseaux's cycle of 315 years harmonizes the solar and
lunar years within 3 hours and 24 minutes. The Metonic 19-year
cycle gets rid of most of it's remainder in a larger Biblical cycle of
2,300 years, Dan8:14.
Cheseaux's cycle, 315 years, is one quarter of a larger Biblical
cycle of 1,260 years (Dan. 8:12; 12:7; Rev. 12:6,14) which is ten
times more accurate than Meton's cycle. After 1260 years the sun
and moon return, within less than half a degree, to the same point
of the ecliptic precisely, and that within an hour of each other. If
we subtract 1260 from 2300 we get 1040 which is the longawaited solar-lunar cycle that harmonizes all three
measurements: the year, month and day "with an almost
imperceptible error" (Error is .11 of a day, Parker's Celestial
Cycles, p.22). In fact, this 1040 year "Daniel Cycle" reaches an
error of one day in 15,056 years. Every 687 years the sun and
the moon come back into the same relative positions to within 43
minutes. In 1906, Dr. W. Bell Dawson discovered that the
average of 2300 and 1260 lunar years, or 1780 lunar years, was
almost exactly equal to 1727 solar years, giving a cycle of even
higher accuracy than the 1040 "Daniel Cycle." The most accurate
anomalistic cycle (the time it takes for the moon to return to the
corresponding point on its elliptical orbit), viz. 1336, is the
difference between 1727 and 391. (see Soli-Lunar Cycles In
Greek Research and Jewish Revelation by Walter S. Ridgway,
UBC, 1946).

Without Equinox Sunset

Without Equinox Sunset

With Equinox Sunset

Meridian Alignments
W

N

E

8

OBSERVATIONAL HEBREW YEAR OF MOSES by O.P. Armstrong July - 2016
The Gnomon or Obelisk
is an astronomical
measurement device.
The solar alignments
are the main aspect to
determine
seasons.
This
is
possible
because of the orbital
layout. These facts are
shown here in theory
and
in
practice.
Omitted here but given
earlier is the BAY tool to
improve
shadow
definition. Without that
Egyptian
tool,
the
accuracy is decreased
as suggested by some.
In church times these
are used in order to
better calculate the
astronomical event of
EASTER. See next slide.

9


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