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School of Physics and Astronomy
FACULTY
OF of
MATHEMATICS
PHYSICS
SCIENCES
School
PhysicsAND
and
Astronomy
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICS SCIENCES

New Star Formation through Stellar-wind Bubbles
George Harries and Joshua Mackay1; Prof Tom Hartquist2
Work Experience Week; Astrophysics group

Introduction
All stars emit a ‘stellar wind’,
characterised by high velocity
charged particles radiating out in all
directions (200-300kms-1 for our
sun on average [2]). This wind
travels through the surrounding
material at speeds far greater than
the speed of sound in that material,
thus generating a shock wave.
This is a region of compression and
heating of the material in front of
the travelling matter and causes an
abrupt increase in pressure (see [4])
and thus converts Ek to Et and heats
the surrounding medium to
temperatures ~106K. [2]

[4]

It is postulated that the gas bubbles
and pillars formed by stellar winds can
then collapse under gravity to form
new stars. These then photoionise the
gas around them causing a similar
bubble-blowing effect (see [6]) [2]
where the main source of original
pressure is electrostatic repulsion,
causing a chain reaction and a wave of
star production across the nebula; as
observed in the Orion Nebula [2].

[6]

[5]

As an aside this effect has also been
observed on a galactic scale using the
‘galactic superwind’ to blow
superbubbles [7] which are some of
the largest and most magnificent
structures in space [2].

This hot gas then expands so rapidly
that it shocks the Nebular gas, which
is dense enough to radiate the heat
as EM radiation [5] to leave a dense
dust cloud expanding away from the
star [2], a bubble, which looks
similar to the pillars of creation [3].

References
[1] Work experience week students
(George Harries and Joshua
Mackay)
[2] Academic in the field of Stellar
wind bubbles (Prof Tom Hartquist)
[3]
[3] 19/07/2016, NASA Hubble
Space Telescope,
Real world research
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/
Stellar bubbles is currently an active field of research, with much of archive/releases/2015/01/image/
c/warn/
the research happening on it centred here at the University of
Leeds. There have been 122 papers written on the topic since the [4] 20/07/2016, Wikipedia user
Mythealias, created in en:Inkscape,
start of 2016, an average of less than 2 days between papers! Of
these 122, with at least 52 of these have had involvement from the https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sho
ck_wave#/media/File:Pressure_plo
University of Leeds [8].
t.png
Further Information
[5] 20/07/2016, Tom Landeker
Acknowledgements george.harries@gmail.com
Tom Hartquist
joshuamackayuk@gmail.com
http://www.ras.ucalgary.ca/GPS/n
Erin McNeil
PDF hosted by: pdf-archive.com
ews/vol22/main22.html

Methods of Research
In order to test if these theories are
correct and to see what happens at
different stages astronomers use
simulations. The results of these
simulations are then checked against
what is known to have happened
using observation to see if it
correlates. If the simulation agrees
with the observations then it can be
used to make predictions about what
happens at different stages of stellar
evolution.

Conclusions

[9]

[7]

[6] Self created using power point,
George Harries
[7] 20/07/2016, University of Leeds,
galaxy NGC 3079
http://www.ast.leeds.ac.uk/research
/winds.html
[8] 21/07/2016, Google Scholar
Database,
http://tinyurl.com/hzynvqv
[9] 21/07/2016, NASA Hubble Space
Telescope,
https://www.nasa.gov/imagefeature/goddard/2016/hubblesblue-bubble


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