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The Internet of Things generating Big Data for the Automotive Industry
On this report, I will show how the Automotive Industry, one of the industries I would like to work in
the future, gets benefits from the Big Data generated by the Internet of Things.

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of mobile devices attached to everyday physical objects
connected to the internet and able to identify themselves to and exchange information with other
devices. These devices have micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) which include micro sensors
on it. The data collected by the micro sensors are sent to other devices or computers via wireless
technologies. Using Big Data Analytic techniques the information gathered by these devices is used
to increase efficiency, enable new services or achieve health, safety or environment benefits.
(Internet of Things (IoT)-techopedia 2015)
The internet of things has emerged from the convergence of wireless technologies, microelectromechanical systems, and the Internet. (Internet of Things (IoT)-techtarget)
According to projections from the technology research company Gartner Group, there are 4.4 billion
connected devices in the world today (estimation for 2015). This number has increased by 30
percent since 2014 and will reach 25 billion by 2020. Cisco Systems Inc. predicts that 50 billion
objects will be connected to the internet by 2020. The reason for these conflicting numbers is that
Gartner Group excludes PCs, tablets, and smartphones on its predictions (see Figure 1). (Gartner
Says 4.9 Billion Connected "Things" Will Be in Use in 2015 2014) (Evans 2011)

Connected devices in billions
World market, Estimation
Source Gartner Group and Cisco Systems
50

25

25

4.9
2015

2020
Gartner

Cisco

Figure 1

On this report, I will consider the information provided by Gartner Group because Internet of Things
is related to connected devices with minimal or no processing power which excludes PCs, tablets,
and smartphones.
The Internet of Things and also all the information gathered by these connected devices has become
an important source of data and will have a big impact on all industries and all areas of society.

Consumer applications and gadgets will be responsible for the growth of the number of connected
devices. Enterprise applications will account for most of the revenue. Gartner Group estimates that
2.9 billion connected devices will be in use in the consumer sector in 2015 and will reach over 13
billion in 2020. The automotive sector will show the highest growth rate at 96 percent from 2014 to
2015. The top three industries using connected devices in 2015 are Manufacturing, Utilities and
Transportation with 736 million connected devices in use together. By 2020 the ranking will change:
Utilities industry will be the number one, Manufacturing sector will be second, and Government
sector will be third with a total of 1.7 billion units installed. (Gartner Says 4.9 Billion Connected
"Things" Will Be in Use in 2015 2014)

The organisations worldwide are expected to receive much more data as the number and complexity
of connected devices is increasing every year. The challenge that these organisations face nowadays
is to understand how to extract knowledge from this big amount of data. Data science will have an
important role in facing this challenge.

Automotive industry using Internet of Things

Figure 2

With one in five vehicles having some sort of wireless network connection by 2020 cars will be a
major element of the expanding Internet of Things accounting for more than 100 million (see Figure
2) of connected devices on the roads worldwide according to the market research firm ABI Research.
(Press 2014)
Automotive Industry has been using Big Data for many years because of the complexity of their
business. Car manufacturers have been dealing with information from multiple internal and external
sources as transactions, enterprise content and micro sensors with characteristics as volume,
variety, velocity and veracity for a long time. For decades microsensors have been working in a

controlled test environment inside the manufacturer’s labs. Now, these microsensors will produce
information from real roads. And will send to the organisations in real time. For the first time in
history, car manufacturers will monitor and analysing detailed information of the vehicles
manufactured by them for its entire life cycle and not only during the test phase. These companies
will have access to tire pressure, motor temperature, location and environment details, oil level
amongst other information provided by millions of cars.
Some car manufacturers have already begun to install connected devices on their vehicles and have
built the infrastructure to receive the information generated by them. Ford motors built a 12 nodes
Hadoop cluster in order to process all the information generated by the company’s cars. The
company started to use this cluster in 2012 as an experiment and has been expanded since then.
Ford’s hybrid Fusion model, for example, generates up to 25 GB of data per hour. (Hemsoth 2013)
This massive amount of information can be used to create a data sharing network between the
manufacturer, the Customer and the Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) in order to
understand driving behaviours, reduce accidents and analyse and identify issues that lower
maintenance costs. This knowledge can also be used on the project of new cars in order to increase
their efficiency.
A recent report by McKinsey & Company found that the “dramatic increase in vehicle connectivity”
that is “transforming the automotive sector” could boost the value of the global market for
connectivity components and services to €170 billion by 2020. This value is more than five times
higher than today’s value which is €30 billion. (Davidson 2015)

Benefits of Data Analysis from Internet of Things for automotive industry
By 2015 the Government sector is projected to be the largest generator of big data followed by the
automotive sector which comes in second. (IBM Big Data for Auto Industry 2013) These are 3
examples of how the information mined from the Big Data generated by vehicles will impact
different areas of automotive industry:
- The data gathered from the vehicles during its life cycle will be used to improve the design of
future models. Characteristics like safety, aerodynamics, and durability of every single part of a new
car can be improved based on information gathered from the data collected from millions of real
cars.
- Services will benefit from the information gathered by vehicles. Manufacturer companies will be
able to detect faulty motor parts and recommend a replacement even before it represents a risk to
the driver. In addiction, it will be possible to organize a recall of all the vehicles which uses similar
potentially faulty motor parts if necessary. This action will prevent car accidents and save lives.
- Understanding consumer habits, preferences, and driving behaviour will impact the supply chain
management and financing programs of the manufacturers. They will be able to use information
from the car’s parts sensors and location to predict the demand for their items.

Concerns
The proliferation of Internet of Things technologies applied to cars raises concerns about the ability
of an unauthorised person to have access and control over the information stored on the connected

devices or during its transmission to the manufacturer’s servers. Also, there are concerns about who
or which organisations will have access to the information on driver’s habits for commercial
purposes without the driver’s knowledge or consent.
After sending questions to the leading car manufacturers in the United States of America, North
American Senator Ed Markey released a report in February 2015 on automotive security and privacy
vulnerabilities. The key findings from these responses are:
- The automotive industry store all the information gathered by the electronic sensors without any
kind of security layer like encryption;
- The automotive industry is not clear about the use and sharing of the data;
- The automotive industry is not prepared to respond neither even diagnose a hacker attack.
(Markey 2015)

Data Security concerns
Vehicles will have the capability of collect and send data to the manufacturer or third-party server as
well as to receive data for modification of a vehicle’s computers and its operation. These
communication capabilities have the potential to allow hackers to remotely access and modify a
vehicle’s control systems.
It is not clear at the present moment how the automotive industry will keep their connected devices
free of invasion. Manufacturers are not able to encrypt the data which is the most basic step in
protecting it. All the information collected by the connected devices should be encrypted locally on
the device, encrypted during transmission, and, also, encrypted after being received by the data
centre. Encrypting the data does not guarantee 100% of security however it is the first layer of
security that every information must have. A vehicle security system with regular antivirus updates
would add a second level of protection to the data.

Privacy and ethical concerns
Vehicles have a set of computer sensors collecting data about location, driving habits, engine
behaviour as well as media and entertainment. At the moment the automotive industry is not able
to guarantee any privacy of the data collected by these sensors.
As the car manufacturers developed the cars and have access to the information before anyone else,
it is common sense that they are the responsible for this information. However, other organizations
like Insurance companies, Original Equipment Manufacturers, and even Government agencies may
be interested in this data. As there is no specific legislation that guarantee the total privacy of the
information gathered by the sensors it is important that legislators, lowers, Automotive Industry
representatives and Consumers representatives start the discussion about which organizations
should be responsible and have access to this information.

The future of Big Data in the automotive industry
The car manufacturers will offer to its consumers a network of connected vehicles which will be able
to drive themselves, schedule preventive maintenance, avoid traffic and avoid accidents. (Davidson
2015) (Feinberg 2013)

The automotive industry will shift from a mechanical based industry to an information technology
based industry providing transportation and entertainment to its clients. And Data Science will have
a key role in this movement. (Why it's the era of the Connected Car 2015)

Conclusion
The rise of connected devices will allow car manufacturers to monitor every single car for its entire
life cycle. The information gathered by these devices and the knowledge mined by the Data
Scientists will reduce costs, prevent accidents and increase the efficiency of new models.
In the future, real-time management will change completely the automotive industry. Car
manufacturers will act as service providers and not as car manufacturers anymore. (Why it's the era
of the Connected Car 2015)

References
Davidson, L. 2015, How connected cars are driving the Internet of Things, The Telegraph, viewed 28
March 2015,
<http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/newsbysector/industry/engineering/11372205/Howconnected-cars-are-driving-the-Internet-of-Things.html>.
Evans, D. 2011, The Internet of Things, Cisco Systems, viewed 28 March 2015,
<https://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/innov/IoT_IBSG_0411FINAL.pdf>.
Feinberg, A. 2013, Ford Is Using Robots To Put Cars Through Its Toughest Tests, Gizmodo, viewed 28
March 2015, <http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2013/06/ford-is-using-robots-to-put-carsthrough-its-toughest-tests/>.
Gartner Says 4.9 Billion Connected "Things" Will Be in Use in 2015 2014, Gartner Group Inc., viewed
28 March 2015, <http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2905717>.
Hemsoth, N. 2013, How Ford is Putting Hadoop Pedal to the Metal, Datanami, viewed 28 March
2015,
<http://www.datanami.com/2013/03/16/how_ford_is_putting_hadoop_pedal_to_the_met
al/>.
IBM Big Data for Auto Industry 2013, IBM Corporation, viewed 28 March 2015,
<http://www.oesa.org/Doc-Vault/Knowledge-Center/Operational-PerformanceContent/IBM-Big-Data-for-Auto-Industry.pdf>.
Internet of Things (IoT)-techopedia 2015, techopedia.com, viewed 28 March 2015,
<http://www.techopedia.com/definition/28247/internet-of-things-iot>.
Internet of Things (IoT)-techtarget, techtarget.com, viewed 28 March 2015,
<http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Internet-of-Things>.
Markey, E.J. 2015, Tracking & Hacking: Security & Privacy Gaps Put American Drivers at Risk, The
United States Senate, viewed 28 March 2015,
<http://www.markey.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/2015-02-06_MarkeyReportTracking_Hacking_CarSecurity%202.pdf>.
Press, G. 2014, Internet of Things by the Numbers: Market Estimates and Forecasts, Forbes, viewed
28 March 2015, <http://www.forbes.com/sites/gilpress/2014/08/22/internet-of-things-bythe-numbers-market-estimates-and-forecasts/>.

Why it's the era of the Connected Car 2015, Digital Futures by Telefónica S.A., viewed 28 March
2015, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tttrSfP3wTs>.


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