elisa kits for Immunology.pdf


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Immunology
Immunology is the branch of biomedical science that deals with the response of an
organism to antigenic challenge and its recognition of what is self and what is not. It
deals with the defence mechanisms including all physical, chemical and biological
properties of the organism that help it to combat its susceptibility to foreign organisms,
material, etc. The immune system is divided into those which are static, or innate to
the organism, and those which are responsive, or adaptive to a potential pathogen or
foreign substance.
The first line of defence includes physical defences such as skin & epithelial surfaces,
cilia, commensal flora, acidic gastric contents, fever etc. The adaptive system is the
second line of defence which relies on collections of millions of clones of B and T
lymphocytes to provide protection for the host, each clone capable of recognizing a
distinct molecule. Furthermore, B and T lymphocytes are capable of differentiating into
several different types of effector cells that perform distinct functions, and into long-lived
memory cells that prevent or minimize repeat infections by a microbe.
Many diseases occur when there are fundamental defects in the immune system, or
when the normal immune system is challenged in ways that evoke responses that
damage rather than protect host cells and tissues. Malfunctions of the immune system
in immunological disorders result in autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune
deficiency, and transplant rejection.

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