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Shell Programming in 24 Hours .pdf



Original filename: Shell Programming in 24 Hours.pdf
Title: Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
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Sams Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Table of Contents

Sams Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Copyright
Introduction






How This Book Is Organized
Conventions Used in This Book
About the Author
Dedication
Acknowledgments

Part I Introduction to UNIX and Shell Tools
Hour 1: Shell Basics






What Is a Command?
What Is the Shell?
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 2: Script Basics







The UNIX System
Shell Initialization
Getting Help
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 3: Working with Files







Listing Files
Viewing the Content of a File
Manipulating Files
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 4: Working With Directories

Index








The Directory Tree
Switching Directories
Listing Files and Directories
Manipulating Directories
Summary
Questions

Hour 5: Manipulating File Attributes





File Types
Owners, Groups, and Permissions
Summary
Questions

Hour 6: Processes








Starting a Process
Listing Running Processes
Killing a Process (kill Command)
Parent and Child Processes
Summary
Questions
Terms

Part II Shell Programming
Hour 7: Variables







Defining Variables
Unsetting Variables
Environment Variables
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 8: Substitution






Filename Substitution (Globbing)
Variable Substitution
Command and Arithmetic Substitution
Summary
Questions

Hour 9: Quoting


Quoting with Backslashes








Using Single Quotes
Using Double Quotes
Quoting Rules and Situations
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 10: Flow Control





The if Statement
The case Statement
Summary
Questions

Hour 11: Loops







The while Loop
The for and select Loops
Loop Control
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 12: Parameters






Special Variables
Options and Arguments
Option Parsing in Shell Scripts
Conclusion
Questions

Hour 13: Input/Output







Output
Input
File Descriptors
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 14: Functions





Creating and Using Functions
Sharing Data Between Functions, an Example
Conclusion
Questions

Hour 15: Text Filters






The head and tail Commands
Using grep
Counting Words
Summary
Questions

Hour 16: Filtering Text Using Regular Expressions





The Basics of awk and sed
Using sed
Summary
Questions

Hour 17: Filtering Text with awk






What is awk?
Using awk Features
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 18: Miscellaneous Tools













The eval Command
The : Command
The type Command
The sleep Command
The find Command
xargs
The expr Command
The bc Command
remsh/rsh/rcmd/remote (Remote Shell)
Summary
Questions
Terms

Part III Advanced Topics
Hour 19: Dealing with Signals




How Are Signal Represented?
Dealing with Signals
Conclusion



Questions

Hour 20: Debugging






Enabling Debugging
Syntax Checking
Shell Tracing
Summary
Questions

Hour 21: Problem Solving with Functions






Creating a Library of Functions
Useful Functions
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 22: Problem Solving with Shell Scripts






Moving Directories
Maintaining an Address Book
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 23: Scripting for Portability






Determining UNIX Versions
Techniques for Increasing Portability
Summary
Questions
Terms

Hour 24: Shell Programming FAQs





Shell and Command Questions
Variable and Argument Questions
File and Directory Questions
Summary

Part IV Appendixes
Appendix A: Command Quick Reference













Reserved Words and Built-in Shell Commands
Conditional Expressions
Arithmetic Expressions (Korn/Bash Only)
Parameters and Variables
Parameter Substitution
Pattern Matching
I/O
Miscellaneous Command Summaries
Regular Expression Wildcards
Summary
Questions

Appendix B: Glossary
Appendix C: Quiz Answers

























Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Chapter 12
Chapter 13
Chapter 14
Chapter 15
Chapter 16
Chapter 17
Chapter 18
Chapter 19
Chapter 20
Chapter 21
Chapter 22
Chapter 23
Appendix A

Index
Sams Teach Yoursel Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Table of Contents

Index

Sams Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Copyright

Contents Index
Previous Chapter Next Chapter

Copyright
Sams Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Copyright © 1999 by Sams Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this book shall be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted by
any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from
the publisher. No patent liability is assumed with respect to the use of the information contained herein.
Although every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume
no responsibility for errors or omissions. Neither is any liability assumed for damages resulting from the use
of the information contained herein.
International Standard Book Number: 0-672-31481-9
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 98-89272
Printed in the United States of America
First Printing: March 1999
01 00 99

4321

Trademarks
All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately
capitalized. Sams cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be
regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.
Warning and Disclaimer
Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and as accurate as possible, but no warranty or
fitness is implied. The information provided is on an "as is" basis. The authors and the publisher shall have
neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the
information contained in this book or from the use of the programs accompanying it.
Sams Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Copyright
© Copyright Macmillan Computer Publishing. All rights reserved.

Contents Index
Previous Chapter Next Chapter

Sams Teach Yourself Shell Programming in 24 Hours
Introduction
Sections in this Chapter:
How This Book Is Organized
Dedication
Conventions Used in This Book Acknowledgments
About the Author

Contents Index
Previous Chapter Next Chapter

Previous Section Next Section

Introduction
In recent years, the UNIX operating system has seen a huge boost in its popularity, especially with the
emergence of Linux. For programmers and users of UNIX, this comes as no surprise: UNIX was designed to
provide an environment that's powerful yet easy to use.
One of the main strengths of UNIX is that it comes with a large collection of standard programs. These
programs perform a wide variety of tasks from listing your files to reading email. Unlike other operating
systems, one of the key features of UNIX is that these programs can be combined to perform complicated
tasks and solve your problems.
One of the most powerful standard programs available in UNIX is the shell. The shell is a program that
provides you with a consistent and easy-to-use environment for executing programs in UNIX. If you have
ever used a UNIX system, you have interacted with the shell.
The main responsibility of the shell is to read the commands you type and then ask the UNIX kernel to
perform these commands. In addition to this, the shell provides sophisticated programming constructs that
enable you to make decisions, repeatedly execute commands, create functions, and store values in
variables.
This book concentrates on the standard UNIX shell called the Bourne shell. When Dennis Ritche and Ken
Thompson were developing much of UNIX in the early 1970s, they used a very simple shell. The first real
shell, written by Stephen Bourne, appeared in the mid 1970s. The original Bourne shell has changed slightly
over the years; some features were added and others were removed, but its syntax and its resulting power
have remained the same.
The most attractive feature of the shell is that it enables you to create scripts. Scripts are files that contain a
list of commands you want to run. Because every script is contained in a file and every file has a name,
scripts enable you to combine existing programs to create completely new programs that solve your
problems. This book teaches you how to create, execute, modify, and debug shell scripts quickly and easily.
After you get used to writing scripts, you will find yourself solving more and more problems with them.

How This Book Is Organized
About the Examples

I assume that you have some familiarity with UNIX and know how to log in, create and edit files, and work
with files and directories to a limited extent. If you haven't used UNIX in a while or you aren't familiar with
one of these topics, don't worry. The first part of this book reviews this material thoroughly.
This book is divided into three parts:



Part I is an introduction to UNIX, the shell, and some common tools.



Part II covers programming using the shell.



Part III covers advanced topics in shell programming.

Part I consists of Chapters 1 through 6. The following material covered in the individual chapters:










Chapter 1, "Shell Basics," discusses several important concepts related to the shell and describes
the different versions of the shell.
Chapter 2, "Script Basics," describes the process of creating and running a shell script. It also covers
the login process and the different modes in which the shell executes.
Chapters 3, "Working with Files," and 4, "Working with Directories," provide an overview of the
commands used when working with files and directories. These chapters show you how to list the
contents of a directory, view the contents of a file, and manipulate files and directories.
Chapter 5, "Manipulating File Attributes," introduces the concept of file attributes. It covers the
different types of files along with modifying a file's permissions.
In UNIX every program runs as a process. Chapter 6, "Processes," shows you how to start and stop
a process. It also explains the term process ID and how you can view them.

By this point, you should have a good foundation in the UNIX basics. This will enable you to start writing
shell scripts that solve real problems using the concepts covered in Part II. Part II is the heart of this book,
consisting of Chapters 7 through 18. It teaches you about all the tools available when programming in the
shell. The following material is covered in these chapters:












Chapter 7, "Variables," explains the use of variables in shell programming, shows you how to create
and delete variables, and explains the concept of environment variables.
Chapters 8, "Substitution," and 9, "Quoting," cover the topics of substitution and quoting. Chapter 8
shows you the four main types of substitution: filename, variables, command, and arithmetic
substitution. Chapter 9 shows you the behavior of the different types of quoting and its effect on
substitution.
Chapters 10, "Flow Control," and 11, "Loops," provide complete coverage of flow control and
looping. The flow control constructs if and case are covered along with the loop constructs for
and while.
Chapter 12, "Parameters," shows you how to write scripts that use command line arguments. The
special variables and the getopts command are covered in detail.
Chapter 13, "Input/Output," covers the echo, printf, and read commands along with the < and >
input redirection operators. This chapter also covers using file descriptors.
Chapter 14, "Functions," discusses shell functions. Functions provide a mapping between a name
and a set of commands. Learning to use functions in a shell script is a powerful technique that helps
you solve complicated problems.


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