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DAYLAMĪ WARRIOR, 6TH TO 13TH CENTURY
15/09/2016

written by E. Gemignani (“Rasna”)

The Dailamites (Daylamīgān in Middle Persian) were a fierce, warlike, Iranian people who lived in the Elburz mountains, Tabaristan,
south of the Caspian Sea. Despite coming under Abbasids vassalization in 761, Tabaristan was never directly conquered and occupied by
Arabs, however it remained under the control of local dynasties such as the Gabaurids, Qarinvands, Zaydids, Buyids and Ziyarids,
the latter becoming Seljuk vassals in the 11th century. The Dailamites were first employed as mercenaries by Sassanid Persians
(playing a vital role in the Sassanid conquest of Yemen of 570) and then across the Muslim world, from the Rashidun Caliphate
to Fatimid and Seljuk Empires.
The Dailamite warriors acted principally as mounted infantry, fighting on foot and using mules, camels and horses for transport.
Their favourite battle tactic was forming a shield-wall and advancing steadily towards the enemy, throwing javelins to disrupt the foe and
then entering in close combat with swords and battle-axes [1]. They were also accustomed to warfare on mountainous terrains [2].
Similar equipment and tactics were in use at the time among their Gilite neighbours, and a few centuries later this became the dominant
military method of infantry in Kermān and Pārs [3]. Only the wealthiest warriors fought on horseback, probably because the scarcity of
suitable war mounts in the region, and their heavy cavalry equipment was presumably similar to the panoply of their coeval Persian and
Kurdish relatives. The legendary female warrior Azad Deylami (born in AD 751) may suggest that there was a small number of women
fighters in their native lands.
For most Dailamites clothing consisted of a thigh-length or knee-length woolen or felt kaftan (Khaftān), baggy trousers (Shalwār) and
leather shoes (Mōzag, pl. Mōzagha), but sandals and boots were in use as well. The amount and the variety of protections depended
mainly of the wealth of the individual warrior; almost everyone wore a helmet (Khūd; in its simplest form it was a pot helmet of
spangenhelm construction) worn over a thick felt cap (presumably the classical Irano-Anatolian felt cap known as Tiara). In addition,
brightly painted circular shield were used (Tur or Turs) [4]. The current use of the bulky turban (Dūlband) as headgear is credited to the
Dailamites guards in service under Tulunids and Fatimids [figure A]. The wealthiest warriors were reported to wear mail shirts
(Zrēh or Zerehin) and scale or lamellar cuirasses (Joushan) [5] made of iron, bronze, horn, rawhide or hardened leather.
Long leather boots, or, alternatively, leather shoes worn in combination with with leather poleyns, were presumably preferred to sandals
or simple shoes among the few Dailamite cavalrymen.
A survived 6th century Syrian manuscript [figure B] shows a possible depiction of Dailamite soldier armed with the typical Zhūpīn spear.
He wears a crested spangenhelm and an armour of Eastern Roman fashion (a cuirass similar to Epilorikion with linen or felt Pteruges
covering the shoulders, upper arms and abdomen); his clothing consists of thigh-length Khaftān, a cloak and sandals, with no trousers
being worn. Hoverer it doesn't seems likely that Dailamites really used such form of armour.
A 9th-10th century north Iranian ceramic bottle [figure C] shows a more realistic depiction of Dailamite clothing and equipment,
representing a bearded, long haired man armed with the Tabar battle-axe and the circular Tur shield, wearing the knee-length Khaftān,
trousers and leather boots.
The principal weapon of the Dailamites was the Zhūpīn, a javelin with a very sharp-angled or barbed [6] head. This weapon seems to have
been varied pretty much in length and weight, ranging from a light javelin to a full-size one-handed spear. In Pre-Islamic times they used
to bring three javelins to battle [7]; it is unclear if the number of javelins was fixed and if it changed some centuries later. It is also unclear
if the Dailamites, like their contemporary Kurdish warriors [8], used the thong throwing technique in order to throw the javelin with more
force and accuracy. Other weapons in use were the straight Sassanid sword [9] (Shāmshēr or Tigh) and a small slender dagger (Sakk,
literally “nail” [10]). Other forms of straight swords, shorter than the Sassanid Shāmshēr and quite similar to Arabian Sayf shortsword,
were also in use [11]. Moreover, Dailamites used a certain variety of knives (Kārd), at least some of them being balanced for throwing
(the legendary Azad Deylami is depicted as skilled dagger-thrower in Iranian folklore). Some warriors also carried the battle-axe (Tabar)
or the mace (Wazr or Gurz), both being common weapons among Iranian troops. Finally, slings were reported to be in use at least in preIslamic times [12].
From the 9th-10th centuries there were some changes in Dailamite equipment: the circular Tur shield was gradually replaced by
the longer kite shield [13] (known as Sipar-i shūshak or Tārigah), more styles of helmets were worn (for example the two-piece Baydah)
[figure D], the padded felt Tiara was substituted by dedicated arming caps (Aragchin), and finally the Sassanid style of armor was
replaced by Der' or Dir' (a term used for both mail and scale hauberk), Jubbah mail hauberk [14] and Zereh mail hauberk [15].
The Jubbah mail armor was described as an inadequate protection against the arrows of Turkish Ghulām cavalry [16], so it was probably
manufactured with Arabic and Turkish Zereh-e mamuli quality of mail (“light mail with brazed rings” [17]; as support of this thesis, the
term Jubbah appears to be of Turkish origin [18]), while the Zereh hauberk was likely to be manufactured in Central and Eastern Iran with
Zereh-e dāvudi quality of mail (“sturdy mail with small riveted rings”, described as “impossible to pierce with arrows and sword strikes”)
[19]. Mail armour from Georgia, Khorāsān and Sogdiana (the latter known as Zereh-e soqdi) [20] was highly regarded and, like the
renowned Frankish mail, they probably were the best qualities of available mail armour at time.
Other weapons were added in regular use in the 9th-10th centuries, such as the Tabarzīn saddle-axe (especially used by heavy cavalry),
the bow (Kamān) and the Nāwak arrow-guide [21]. Under Fatimids' service, the Turkish Qalachur sabre and naphta-throwing crossbows
were also in use [22].
Like their Persian and Kurdish relatives, heavy Dailamite cavalrymen of 10th-12th century also used the 9-to-12 feet Nīzah lance, holding
it using both two-handed and one-handed techniques, the latter including all the three possible grips: the overhanded, the underhanded and
even the couched position, a technique shown in both Partho-Sassanian [figure E] and Islamic [figures F, G] art.
This lance was presumably lighter than Partho-Sassanid Kontos lance, which required both hands to be used effectively, or perhaps the
one-handed use of the weapon was made possible by the combination of technological improvements in war saddle and the systematic
adoption of stirrups in Iran. The Kontos, or at least the two-handed lance technique, does not seems to have disappeared after the Islamic
conquest of Persia but it was likely adopted by Arab Muslim armies [23] or was even in used before the Islamic conquest of Persia [24],
as confirmed by the Arabic Quntārīyah lance deriving from the Eastern Roman Kontarion, and the attested use of the “up to 15 feet long”
Qanāh lance in the 12th century, similar to the longest exemplars of Kontos. Very long cavalry lances used with both hands continued to
be frequently represented in Islamic art [figures H, I] at least until the 14th century.
GLOSSARY
Arabic words: Baydah, Der', Dir', Ghulām, Jubbah, Qanāh, Quntārīyah, Sayf, Tārigah, Tur, Turs.
Dailamite words: Sakk (?), Zhūpīn (?).
Greek words: Epilorikion, Kontarion, Kontos, Pteruges, Tiara.
Middle Persian (Pahlavi) words: Daylamīgān, Kamān, Kārd, Khūd, Mōzag, Mōzagha, Nāwak, Shalwār, Shāmshēr, Tigh, Wazr, Zrēh.
New Persian (Farsi) words: Aragchin, Dūlband, Gurz, Joushan, Khaftān, Nīzah, Qalachur (?), Sipar-i shūshak, Tabar, Tabarzīn, Zereh,
Zereh-e dāvudi, Zereh-e mamuli, Zereh-e soqdi, Zerehin.
FIGURATIVE REFERENCES
[A] Fatimid Manuscript with two soldiers, 11th-12th Centuries. Drawing of two warriors found in Fustat, Egypt, eleventh century. Ink on
paper. Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo.
[B] The Rabbula Gospels, Evangelia characteribus Syriacis exarata, Syria, 6th Century. Folio 4r, detail with Joshua. Biblioteca Medicea
Laurenziana, Firenze.
[C] D. Nicolle, “The Military Technology of Classical Islam”, vol. III, picture n° 344.
[D] “Book of Fixed Stars” (Kitāb suwar al-kawākib al-ṯābita) by ‛Abd al-Rahman ibn ‛Umar al-Ṣūfī, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana,
Roma, Manuscript Ross. 1033, AD 1224.
[E] D. Nicolle, “The Military Technology of Classical Islam”, vol. III, picture n° 47.
[F] D. Nicolle, “The Military Technology of Classical Islam”, vol. III, picture n° 507.
[G] “Varqa fights on horseback against a warrior of 'Adan” from “Scenes from the only known illustrated manuscript of the poem, the
Romance of Varqa and Gulshah”, by Urwa Huzam al-'Udhri, with paintings by Abd al Mu'min al Khuwayyi.
[H] D. Nicolle, “The Military Technology of Classical Islam”, vol. III, picture n° 310.
[I] D. Nicolle, “The Military Technology of Classical Islam”, vol. III, picture n° 389.
SOURCES
- C. E. Bosworth, "Military Organization under the Būyids of Persia and Iraq”. [9, 21]
- C. E. Bosworth, "Recruitment, Muster and Review in Medieval Islamic Armies".
- C. E. Bosworth, “The Gḥaznavids”. [6, 13]
- D. Ayalon, "Preliminary Remarks on the Mamlūk Military Institution in Islam".
- D. N. MacKenzie, “A Concise Pahlavi Dictionary”.
- D. Nicolle, “Osprey Essential Histories. The Great Islamic Conquest AD 632-750”.
- D. Nicolle, “Osprey Men-at-Arms 125. Armies of Islam, 7th-11th Century”. [11]
- D. Nicolle, “Osprey Men-at-Arms 255. Armies of the Muslim Conquest”.
- D. Nicolle, “Osprey Men-at-Arms 320. Armies of the Caliphate, 862-1098”.
- D. Nicolle, “The Military Technology of Classical Islam”. [1, 5, 10, 14, 16, 18, 22, 23, 24]
- Encyclopaedia Iranica, “Deylamites”. [2, 7, 12]
- Encyclopaedia Iranica, “Helmet ii. In the Islamic Period”.
- I. Ḥawqal, “Configuration de la Terre”. [3]
- I. Heath, “Armies of the Dark Ages 600-1066”.
- I. Heath, “Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2”.
- M. M. Khorasani, “Arms and Armor from Iran: The Bronze Age to the End of the Qajar Period” [15].
- M. M. Khorasani, “Lexicon of Arms and Armor from Iran: A Study of Symbols and Terminology”.

- M. M. Khorasani, “Linguistic Terms Describing Different Types of Armour in Persian Manuscripts”. [17, 19, 20]
- P. Wilcox, “Osprey Men-at-Arms 175. Rome's Enemies (3): Parthians & Sassanid Persians”. [8]
- V. Minorsky, “Studies on Caucasian History”. [4]

LOADOUTS
In order to get more realism, these loadouts use the stats of armor and weapons listed under the unofficial Revised Low-Tech Armor
and Weapons Table, reassumed on the last page. Some forms of armor are lighter and more expensive than those listed in GURPS
Low-Tech (here: Scale/Lamellar armor) while others have little variations in weight, don and/or holdout (here: Banded Light Mail,
Heavy Hardened Leather). Swing damage of knives and swords against armoured targets is been reduced (see Nerf Blades and
Sharpness Factor on the following page) and both cost and weight of the blade are listed separately from cost and weight of sheath
(see Optional Rule: Sheaths, Low-Tech, p. 57). If you want to use official GURPS stats for any item, simply replace
Scale/Lamellar, Banded Light Mail, Heavy Hardened Leather, Knives and Swords stats with those listed in GURPS Low-Tech.
1) DAYLAMĪG INFANTRYMAN from Sassanid Yemen
This loadout represents the lightest version of Daylamī equipment. Armor is essential (a Sassanian pot helmet and the circular Tur shield)
while clothing is suited for campaigning in Arabian Peninsula, consisting in Tiara felt cap, thigh-length woolen kaftan and sandals instead
of leather shoes, without trousers. Weaponry consists in shortsword, dagger and three Zhūpīn throwing spears.
Daylamīg Infantryman from Sassanid Yemen (6th to 7th Century) (TL 2)
ARMOR AND CLOTHING
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

Helmet

Khūd

Plate, DR 4 [Pot Helm]

Skull

20

4

-5

9

2.4 lbs

$ 300

Kaftan

Khaftān

Ordinary Clothing (Status 0)

Torso, arms, thighs

195 0

0

30

3.12 lbs

$ 93.6

Padded Cap [1]

Tiara

Cloth, Padded

Skull, ears

21

1*

-1

4

1.26 lbs

$ 10.5

Sandals

-

Sandals

Feet (under)

10

1

-2

10

0.5 lbs

$ 25

53

7.28 lbs

$ 429.1

TOTAL (ARMOR AND CLOTHING)

The combination of Helmet and Padded Cap gives DR 5 on skull.
[1] Protects the face on a roll of 3 on 1d.
WEAPONS
MELEE WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Reach Parry ST

Lenght

DR/HP/CDR Don Weight

Cost

Knife

Sakk (Dagger) [1]
reversed grip

thr-1 imp
thr imp

C
C

-1
-2

4
4

VS

3/4
+2/3

1

0.15 lbs
+ 0.1 lbs

$ 16
+$4

Shield

Tur (Medium Shield, Heavy)
shield bash

thr cr

1

DB 2
No

-

S

4/20/9

2

14 lbs

$ 60

Shortsword

Tēkh (Shortsword)
or

sw-1 cut, +1 sf
thr+1 imp

1
C, 1

0
0

7
7

S

6/8
+2/7

1

1.3 lbs
+ 0.7 lbs

$ 320
+ $ 80

Spear

x3 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [1, 2, 3]
two hands
reversed grip
two hands, reversed grip

thr+2 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+4 imp

1, 2*
1, 2*
C, 1*
C, 1*

0U
0
-1U
-1

10
9†
10
9†

EL

4/12

1
(3)

4 lbs
(12 lbs)

$ 100
($ 300)

RANGED WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Range

Acc RoF

Shots

ST

Bul
k

DR/HP

Don Weight

Cost

Throwing Weapon (Knife)

Sakk (Dagger)

thr-1 imp

x0.5/x1

1

1

T (1)

4

-1

3/4
2/3

(1)

(0.15 lbs)
(+ 0.1 lbs)

($ 16)
(+ $ 4)

Throwing Weapon (Spear)

x3 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [2, 4]

thr+3 imp

x1/x1.5

2

1

T (1)

9

-6

4/12

(3)

(12 lbs)

($ 300)

7

28.25 lbs

$ 780

TOTAL (MELEE AND RANGED WEAPONS)

[1] Can be thrown. See Muscle-Powered Ranged Weapon Table (Low Tech, pp. 75-78).
[2] See Barbs (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[3] May get stuck; see Picks (p. B405).
[4] Barbed. Yanking the weapon out inflicts half the injury it caused going in, like an arrow with barbed arrowhead (see Low-Tech, p. 73).
TOTAL (FULL EQUIPMENT)
Don

Weight

Cost

60

35.53 lbs

$ 1,209.1

2) DAYLAMĪGĀN-SĀLĀR WARLORD from Tabaristan
This loadout represents the possible panoply of one Daylamī warlord in Sassanid service or before the Abbasid vassallization of
Tabaristan (AD 760). Armor consists in Sassanid-style helmet (a four-piece spangenhelm with crest, nasal and mail aventail
covering the neck and part of the face), thigh-length hauberk with elbow-length sleeves (very similar to Sassanid mail armor found
in Dura-Europos) and the circular brightly painted Tur shield. Sassanid style of armour survived with some modifies as well into the
10th century among Buyid, Samanid and Ghaznavid armies. Clothing is typical of Tabaristan, consisting in Tiara felt cap with three
separated sheets of felt covering nape, ears and part of cheeks, a scarf preventing the mail aventail chafing the neck, knee-length
woollen or felt kaftan, baggy trousers and ankle boots.
Weaponry consists in highly decorated straight Sassanid broadsword, mace, dagger and two Zhūpīn throwing spears.
Daylamīgān-Sālār Warlord from Tabaristan (6th to 8th Century) (TL 2)
ARMOR AND CLOTHING
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

Boots [1, 2]

-

Boots, Leather

Ankles, feet

25

2/1*

-4

6

3 lbs

$ 80

Hauberk [3, 4, 5, 6]

Zrēh

Mail, Heavy

Torso, shoulders, upper arms, elbows, thighs

170 5/3*

-3

26

30.6 lbs

$ 2,040

Helmet

Khūd

[Pot Helm + Aventail + Crest + Nasal]

-

-8

12

7.36 lbs

$ 689

- Skullcap [7, 8]
- Aventail [3, 9]

-

Plate, Medium [Pot Helm + Crest + Nasal]
Mail, Heavy [Aventail]

Skull, face (back), cheeks (partial), ears, jaw, 33
nose, neck
Skull, nose
21
Face (back), cheeks (partial), ears, jaw, neck 12

6
5/3*

-8
-4

-

(5.2 lbs)
(2.16 lbs)

($ 545)
($ 144)

Kaftan

Khaftān

Ordinary Clothing (Status 2)

Torso, arms, thighs, knees

200 0

0

30

3.2 lbs

$ 480

Padded Cap [10]

Tiara

Cloth, Padded

Skull, face (back), cheeks (partial), ears

26

1*

-1

4

1.56 lbs

$ 13

Scarf

-

Ordinary Clothing (Status 2)

Neck

5

0

0

3

0.08 lbs

$ 12

Trousers

Shalwār

Ordinary Clothing (Status 2)

Groin, legs

105 0

0

16

1.68 lbs

$ 252

97

47.48 lbs

$ 3,566

TOTAL (ARMOR AND CLOTHING)

The combination of Helmet and Padded Cap gives DR 7 on skull.
The combination of Helmet and Padded Cap gives DR 6* (DR 4* vs. crushing) on face (back), cheeks (partial) and ears [face 3-4 on 1d].
[1] -1 DR vs. impaling except for the soles, which give rigid DR 2 on feet (under) against all attacks.
[2] Protects the legs on a roll of 1 on 1d.
[3] -2 DR vs. crushing.
[4] Inside thigh is exposed when on foot (see Armor Gap – Inside Thigh, Loadouts: Low-Tech Armor, p. 4).
[5] Protects the arms on a roll of 4-6 on 1d.
[6] Protects the legs on a roll of 5-6 on 1d.
[7] +1 SM for Intimidation (see Low-Tech, p. 113).
[8] Protects the face on a roll of 2 on 1d.
[9] Protects the face on a roll of 1, 3-4 on 1d.
[10] Protects the face on a roll of 3-4 on 1d.
WEAPONS
MELEE WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Reach Parry ST

Lenght

DR/HP/CDR Don Weight

Cost

Axe/mace

Wazr (Small Mace) [1]

sw+2 cr

1

0U

10

S

4/11

1

3 lbs

$ 35

Broadsword

Shāmshēr (Thrusting Broadsword)
or

sw cut, +1 sf
thr+2 imp

1
1

0
0

8
8

M

6/10
+2/8

1

2 lbs
+ 1 lbs

$ 480
+ $ 120

Knife

Sakk (Dagger) [1]
reversed grip

thr-1 imp
thr imp

C
C

-1
-2

4
4

VS

3/4
+2/3

1

0.15 lbs
+ 0.1 lbs

$ 16
+$4

Shield

Tur (Medium Shield, Heavy)
shield bash

thr cr

1

DB 2
No

-

S

4/20/9

2

14 lbs

$ 60

Spear

x2 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [1, 2, 3]
two hands
reversed grip
two hands, reversed grip

thr+2 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+4 imp

1, 2*
1, 2*
C, 1*
C, 1*

0U
0
-1U
-1

10
9†
10
9†

EL

4/12

1
(2)

4 lbs
(8 lbs)

$ 100
($ 200)

RANGED WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Range

Acc RoF

Shots

ST

Bul
k

DR/HP

Don Weight

Cost

Throwing Weapon (Knife)

Sakk (Dagger)

thr-1 imp

x0.5/x1

1

1

T (1)

4

-1

3/4
2/3

(1)

(0.15 lbs)
(+ 0.1 lbs)

($ 16)
(+ $ 4)

Throwing Weapon (Spear)

x2 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [2, 4]

thr+3 imp

x1/x1.5

2

1

T (1)

9

-6

4/12

(2)

(8 lbs)

($ 200)

7

28.25 lbs

$ 915

TOTAL (MELEE AND RANGED WEAPONS)

[1] Can be thrown. See Muscle-Powered Ranged Weapon Table (Low Tech, pp. 75-78).
[2] See Barbs (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[3] May get stuck; see Picks (p. B405).
[4] Barbed. Yanking the weapon out inflicts half the injury it caused going in, like an arrow with barbed arrowhead (see Low-Tech, p. 73).
TOTAL (FULL EQUIPMENT)
Don

Weight

Cost

104

75.73 lbs

$ 4,481

3) DAYLAMĪG INFANTRYMAN from Tabaristan
This loadout represents one of the more common configurations of Daylamī equipment before the 10th century. Armor is very light,
consisting in four-piece egg-shaped spangenhelm pot helm and the circular Tur shield; clothing is typical of Tabaristan, consisting in
Tiara felt cap, knee-length woollen or felt kaftan, baggy trousers and leather shoes.
Weaponry consists in straight broadsword, battle-axe, dagger and two Zhūpīn throwing spears.
Daylamīg Infantryman from Tabaristan (6th to 9th Century) (TL 2)
ARMOR AND CLOTHING
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

Helmet

Khūd

Plate, DR 4 [Pot Helm]

Skull

20

4

-5

9

2.4 lbs

$ 300

Kaftan

Khaftān

Ordinary Clothing (Status 0)

Torso, arms, thighs, knees

200 0

0

30

3.2 lbs

$ 96

Padded Cap [1]

Tiara

Cloth, Padded

Skull, ears

21

1*

-1

4

1.26 lbs

$ 10.5

Shoes

Mōzagha

Shoes

Feet

20

1

-2

6

2 lbs

$ 40

Trousers

Shalwār

Ordinary Clothing (Status 2)

Groin, legs

105 0

0

16

1.68 lbs

$ 50.4

65

10.94 lbs

$ 496.9

TOTAL (ARMOR AND CLOTHING)

The combination of Helmet and Padded Cap gives DR 5 on skull.
[1] Protects the face on a roll of 3 on 1d.
WEAPONS
MELEE WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Reach Parry ST

Lenght

DR/HP/CDR Don Weight

Cost

Axe/mace

Tabar (Small Axe)

sw+1 cut

1

0U

10

S

4/11

1

3 lbs

$ 45

Broadsword

Shāmshēr (Thrusting Broadsword)
or

sw cut, +1 sf
thr+2 imp

1
1

0
0

8
8

M

6/10
+2/8

1

2 lbs
+ 1 lbs

$ 480
+ $ 120

Knife

Sakk (Dagger) [1]
reversed grip

thr-1 imp
thr imp

C
C

-1
-2

4
4

VS

3/4
+2/3

1

0.15 lbs
+ 0.1 lbs

$ 16
+$4

Shield

Tur (Medium Shield, Heavy)
shield bash

thr cr

1

DB 2
No

-

S

4/20/9

2

14 lbs

$ 60

Spear

x2 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [1, 2, 3]
two hands
reversed grip
two hands, reversed grip

thr+2 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+4 imp

1, 2*
1, 2*
C, 1*
C, 1*

0U
0
-1U
-1

10
9†
10
9†

EL

4/12

1
(2)

4 lbs
(8 lbs)

$ 100
($ 200)

RANGED WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Range

Acc RoF

Shots

ST

Bul
k

DR/HP

Don Weight

Cost

Throwing Weapon (Knife)

Sakk (Dagger)

thr-1 imp

x0.5/x1

1

1

T (1)

4

-1

3/4
2/3

(1)

(0.15 lbs)
(+ 0.1 lbs)

($ 16)
(+ $ 4)

Throwing Weapon (Spear)

x2 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [2, 4]

thr+3 imp

x1/x1.5

2

1

T (1)

9

-6

4/12

(2)

(8 lbs)

($ 200)

7

28.25 lbs

$ 925

TOTAL (MELEE AND RANGED WEAPONS)

[1] Can be thrown. See Muscle-Powered Ranged Weapon Table (Low Tech, pp. 75-78).
[2] See Barbs (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[3] May get stuck; see Picks (p. B405).
[4] Barbed. Yanking the weapon out inflicts half the injury it caused going in, like an arrow with barbed arrowhead (see Low-Tech, p. 73).
TOTAL (FULL EQUIPMENT)
Don

Weight

Cost

72

39.19 lbs

$ 1,421.9

4) LATE DAYLAMĪ INFANTRYMAN
This loadout represents the equipment of late Daylamī infantrymen in Muslim service, but could be also used to represent some coeval
elite infantry units from Gilān, Kermān and Pārs regions. Armor now consists in Khud helmet (a spangenhelm pot helm with nasal and
hardened leather aventail) worn over the Aragchin arming cap, short-sleeved Zerehin mail haubergeon with combined banded mail collar
and neck padding, and the Sipar-i shūshak kite shield. Clothing consists in knee-length woollen kaftan, baggy trousers and ankle boots.
Weaponry consists in straight or curved Shamshir broadsword, Tabarzīn saddle-axe, dagger and two Zhūpīn throwing spears.
Late Daylamī Infantryman (10th to 12th Century) (TL 3)
ARMOR AND CLOTHING
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

Arming Cap [1]

Aragchin

Cloth, Padded

Skull, face (back), ears

25

1*

-1

4

1.5 lbs

$ 12.5

Boots [2, 3]

Chamus

Boots, Leather

Ankles, feet

25

2/1*

-4

6

3 lbs

$ 80

Haubergeon
- Banded Collar [4]
- Mail Shirt [5, 6]

Zerehin
Zerehin

Mail, Light (Banded Mail)
Mail, Fine

Neck, torso, shoulders, upper arms
Neck
Torso, shoulders, upper arms

125 5
3/4
120 4/2*

-4
-4
-2

19
-

18.9 lbs
(0.9 lbs)
(18 lbs)

$ 1,117.5
($ 37.5)
($ 1,080)

Helmet
- Skullcap [7]
- Aventail [1, 8]

Khud
-

[Pot Helm + Aventail + Nasal]
Plate, DR 5 [Pot Helm + Nasal]
Hardened Leather, Heavy [Aventail]

Skull, face (back), ears, nose
Skull, nose
Face (back), ears

26
21
5

-6
-6
-5

12
-

4.56 lbs
(3.36 lbs)
(1.2 lbs)

$ 432.5
($ 420)
($ 12.5)

Kaftan

Khaftān

Ordinary Clothing (Status 1)

Torso, arms, thighs, knees

200 0

0

30

3.2 lbs

$ 192

Padded Collar

Baleshtak

Cloth, Padded

Neck

5

-1

3

0.3 lbs

$ 2.5

Trousers

Berten

Ordinary Clothing (Status 1)

Groin, legs

105 0

0

16

1.68 lbs

$ 100.8

90

33.14 lbs

$ 1,937.8

5
3
1*

TOTAL (ARMOR AND CLOTHING)

The combination of Helmet and Arming Cap gives DR 6 on skull.
The combination of Helmet and Arming Cap gives DR 4 on face (back) and ears [face 3 on 1d]
The combination of Haubergeon and Padded Collar gives DR 4 (DR 5 vs. cutting) on neck.
[1] Protects the face on a roll of 3 on 1d.
[2] -1 DR vs. impaling except for the soles, which give rigid DR 2 on feet (under) against all attacks.
[3] Protects the legs on a roll of 1 on 1d.
[4] +1 DR vs. cutting.
[5] -2 DR vs. crushing.
[6] Protects the arms on a roll of 5-6 on 1d.
[7] Protects the face on a roll of 2 on 1d.
[8] Gives Hard of Hearing (p. B138).
WEAPONS
MELEE WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Reach Parry ST

Lenght

DR/HP/CDR Don Weight

Cost

Axe/mace

Tabarzīn (Small Axe + Pick) [1]
or [2, 3, 4]

sw+1 cut
sw imp

1
1

0U
0U

10
10

S

4/11

1

3.5 lbs

$ 95

Broadsword

Shamshir (Thrusting Broadsword)
or

sw cut, +1 sf
thr+2 imp

1
1

0
0

8
8

M

6/10
+2/8

1

2 lbs
+ 1 lbs

$ 480
+ $ 120

Knife

Sakk (Dagger) [5]
reversed grip

thr-1 imp
thr imp

C
C

-1
-2

4
4

VS

3/4
+2/3

1

0.15 lbs
+ 0.1 lbs

$ 16
+$4

Shield

Sipar-i shūshak (Kite Shield)
shield bash

thr cr

1

DB 3
No

-

S

4/21/9

3

18 lbs

$ 120

Spear

x2 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [3, 5, 6]
two hands
reversed grip
two hand, reversed grip

thr+2 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+4 imp

1, 2*
1, 2*
C, 1*
C, 1*

0U
0
-1U
-1

10
9†
10
9†

EL

4/12

1
(2)

4 lbs
(8 lbs)

$ 100
($ 200)

RANGED WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Range

Acc RoF

Shots

ST

Bul
k

DR/HP

Don Weight

Cost

Throwing Weapon (Knife)

Sakk (Dagger)

thr-1 imp

x0.5/x1

1

1

T (1)

4

-1

3/4
2/3

(1)

(0.15 lbs)
(+ 0.1 lbs)

($ 16)
(+ $ 4)

Throwing Weapon (Spear)

x2 Zhūpīn (Spear + Barbs) [6, 7]

thr+3 imp

x1/x1.5

2

1

T (1)

9

-6

4/12

(2)

(8 lbs)

($ 200)

8

32.75 lbs

$ 1,035

TOTAL (MELEE AND RANGED WEAPONS)

[1] See Pick (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[2] Hook enables the rules under Hook (Low-Tech, p. 54), and may also damage the victim.
[3] May get stuck; see Picks (p. B405).
[4] Reduce penalty for targeting chinks in armor (p. B400) by -2
[5] Can be thrown. See Muscle-Powered Ranged Weapon Table (Low-Tech, pp. 75-78).
[6] See Barbs (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[7] Barbed. Yanking the weapon out inflicts half the injury it caused going in, like an arrow with barbed arrowhead (see Low-Tech, p. 73).
TOTAL (FULL EQUIPMENT)
Don

Weight

Cost

98

65.89 lbs

$ 2,972.8

5) IRANIAN HEAVY CAVALRY
This loadout represents one of possible heaviest panoply of late Daylamī cavalrymen and it could be used as well to represent Persian,
Kurdish, Khorasanian and Khwarazmian heavy cavalry of the same period, especially the latter (the Sogdians and the Khwarazmians were
famous for the heaviness of their armours since Sassanid times), with some little changes depending on regional styles.
Armor consists in Baydah helmet (here, a bascinet* with nasal and crest) with Aragchin arming cap, Garibān mail standard with banded
collar and neck padding (Baleshtak), knee-length Zereh mail hauberk manufactured in Central or Eastern Iran with Zereh-e dāvudi quality
of mail rings, Joushan iron lamellar cuirass, Bāzuband tubular vambraces, sturdy leather boots (use the same stats for medium leather
shoes combined with leather poleyns) and the Sipar-i shūshak kite shield, though Tur shield was still in use. Clothing consists in
knee-length woolen or felt kaftan and baggy trousers suited for riding.
Weaponry consists in straight or curved Shamshir broadsword, mace and/or saddle-axe, dagger and Nīzah lance. Reflex composite bows
(see Low-Tech, pp. 72 and 76) and Nāwak arrow-guide (see Low-Tech, p. 78) were also in use, but they aren't included in this loadout.
*Helmets with solid metal nape coverage were known in Iran since Parthian times and their presence grew significately in 12th century,
maybe as consequence of contacts with European Crusaders; hoverer it seems that such style of helmet never became common, appearing
quite rarely in Islamic art. Pot helmets with an aventail (made of mail, scale, lamellar, layered cloth or hardened leather) were by far more
common. Use the same stats for helmet and aventail listed under Seljuk Cavalry Loadout (see Loadouts: Low-Tech Armor, p. 28).
Horse Armor
As noted in Seljuk Cavalry Loadout (see Loadouts: Low-Tech Armor, p. 28), in this period horse armor consisted mainly of felt padding
(Tidifāf) but mail barding (Bargostovān) was also used, though with less frequency; occasionally they're worn together, but this gives
-1 DX to the horse (see Layered Armor, Low-Tech, p. 103).
Iranian Heavy Cavalry (10th to 13th Century) (TL 3)
ARMOR AND CLOTHING
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

Arming Cap [1]

Aragchin

Cloth, Padded

Skull, face (back), ears

25

1*

-1

4

1.5 lbs

$ 12.5

Boots [2, 3]

Chamus

Boots, Leather

Shins, feet

70

2/1*

-4

16

8.5 lbs

$ 95

Corselet

Joushan

Lamellar, Medium

Chest

75

4

-4

23

18 lbs

$ 675

Hauberk [4, 5, 6]

Zereh

Mail, Fine

Torso, arms, thighs, knees

200 4/2*

-2

30

30 lbs

$ 1,800

Helmet [6, 7, 8]

Baydah

Plate, Medium [Bascinet + Crest + Nasal]

Skull, face (back), ears, nose

26

-8

12

6.2 lbs

$ 670

Kaftan

Khaftān

Ordinary Clothing (Status 2)

Torso, arms, thighs, knees

200 0

0

30

3.2 lbs

$ 480

Padded Collar

Baleshtak

Cloth, Padded

Neck

5

1*

-1

3

0.3 lbs

$ 2.5

Standard
- Banded Collar [9]
- Standard [4, 10, 11]

Garibān
-

Mail, Light (Banded Mail)
Mail, Light

Neck, upper chest (partial), shoulders
Neck
Upper chest (partial), shoulders

40
5
35

3/4
3/1*

-4
-4
-1

7
-

5.1 lbs
(0.9 lbs)
(4.2 lbs)

$ 212.5
($ 37.5)
($ 175)

Trousers

Berten

Ordinary Clothing (Status 2)

Groin, legs

105 0

0

16

1.68 lbs

$ 252

Vambraces [12]

Bāzuband

Plate, Light

Elbows, forearms

30

-3

11

2.4 lbs

$ 300

6

3

TOTAL (ARMOR AND CLOTHING)

152 76.88 lbs

$ 4,499.5

The combination of Helmet and Arming Cap gives DR 7 on skull, face (back) and ears [face 3 on 1d].
The combination of Standard and Padded Collar gives DR 4 (DR 5 vs. cutting) on neck.
The combination of Standard, Corselet and Hauberk gives DR 11 (DR 7 vs. crushing) on upper chest [chest 1-2 on 1d, including vitals].
The combination of Corselet and Hauberk gives DR 8 (DR 6 vs. crushing) on lower chest [chest 3-6 on 1d]; -1 DX (see Layered Armor, Low-Tech, p. 103).
The combination of Standard and Hauberk gives DR 7* (DR 3* vs. crushing) on shoulders [arms 6 on 1d].
The combination of Vambraces and Hauberk gives DR 7 (DR 5 vs. crushing) on elbows and forearms [arms 1-4 on 1d].
[1] Protects the face on a roll of 3 on 1d.
[2] -1 DR vs. impaling except for the soles, which give rigid DR 2 on feet (under) against all attacks.
[3] Protects the legs on a roll of 1-3 on 1d.
[4] -2 DR vs. crushing.
[5] Protects the legs on a roll of 4-6 on 1d.
[6] Inside thigh is exposed when on foot (see Loadouts: Low-Tech Armor, Armor Gap – Inside Thigh, p. 4).
[7] +1 SM for Intimidation (see Low-Tech, p. 113).
[8] Gives Hard of Hearing (p. B138).
[9] Protects the face on a roll of 2-3 on 1d.
[10] +1 DR vs. cutting.
[11] Protects the chest (including vitals) on a roll of 1-2 on 1d.
[12] Protects the arms on a roll of 6 on 1d.
[13] Protects the arms on a roll of 1-4 on 1d.
NOTE: Armor could be even heavier. The cavalryman could wear a mail coif covering the entire head, mail gauntlets combined on Bāzuband tubular vambraces
and mail socks covering feet and shins, while helmet could feature cheek guards.
Replace the Helmet with the Helmet listed below and the Standard with the Camail; add Mail Gauntlets and Socks (see below).
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

Camail
- Coif [4, 14]
- Banded Collar [10]
- Standard [4, 11, 12]

Zerehkolāh
-

Mail, Light
Mail, Light (Banded Mail)
Mail, Light

Head, neck, upper chest (partial), shoulders
Head
Neck
Upper chest (partial), shoulders

70
30
5
35

3/1*
3/4
3/1*

-4
-2
-4
-1

12
-

5.1 lbs
(3.6 lbs)
(0.9 lbs)
(4.2 lbs)

$ 362.5
($ 150)
($ 37.5)
($ 175)

Gauntlets [4, 15]

Dastuvana

Mail, Fine [Gauntlets, Fine Mail]

Hands

10

4/2*

-3

10

1.5 lbs

$ 90

Helmet [7, 8, 16]

Baydah

Plate, Medium
Skull, face (back), cheeks, ears, nose
[Bascinet + Cheek Guards + Crest + Nasal]

28

6

-8

13

6.6 lbs

$ 720

Mail Socks [3, 4]

-

Mail, Light

70

3/1*

-2

11

8.4 lbs

$ 350

Shins, feet

TOTAL (HEAVIEST ARMOR AND CLOTHING)

179 90.78 lbs

$ 5,139.5

The combination of Helmet, Coif and Arming Cap gives DR 10 (DR 8 vs. crushing) on skull, face (back) and ears [face 3 on 1d].
The combination of Helmet and Coif gives DR 9 (DR 7 vs. crushing) on cheeks and nose [face 2, 4-5 on 1d].
The combination of Standard and Padded Collar gives DR 4 (DR 5 vs. cutting) on neck.
The combination of Standard, Corselet and Hauberk gives DR 11 (DR 7 vs. crushing) on upper chest [chest 1-2 on 1d, including vitals].
The combination of Corselet and Hauberk gives DR 8 (DR 6 vs. crushing) on lower chest [chest 3-6 on 1d]; -1 DX (see Layered Armor, Low-Tech, p. 103).
The combination of Standard and Hauberk gives DR 7* (DR 3* vs. crushing) on shoulders [arms 6 on 1d].
The combination of Vambraces and Hauberk gives DR 7 (DR 5 vs. crushing) on elbows and forearms [arms 1-4 on 1d].
The combination of Boots and Mail Socks gives DR 5* (DR 4* vs. impaling, DR 3* vs. crushing) on shins [legs 1-3 on 1d] and feet (above).
The combination of Boots and Mail Socks gives DR 5 (DR 3 vs. crushing) on feet (under).
[3] Protects the legs on a roll of 1-3 on 1d.
[4] -2 DR vs. crushing.
[7] +1 SM for Intimidation (see Low-Tech, p. 113).
[8] Gives Hard of Hearing (p. B138).
[14] Gives No Peripheral Vision (p. B151).
[15] Gives Ham-Fisted 2 (p. B138).
[16] Protects the face on a roll of 2-5 on 1d.
HORSE ARMOR
Common name

Ethnic name

Armor typology

Locations

%

Felt Barding [17]

Tidifāf

Layered Cloth, Light [Caparison]

Neck, torso, upper legs

Mail Barding [4, 17]

Bargostovān

Mail, Light [Caparison]

Neck, torso, upper legs

DR

Hold Don Weight

Cost

500 2*

-1

100 60 lbs

$ 750

500 3/1*

-2

75

$ 2,50

TOTAL (FELT BARDING + MAIL BARDING)

60 lbs

175 120 lbs

$ 3,250

The combination of Mail Barding and Felt Barding gives DR 5* (DR 3* vs. crushing) on neck, torso and upper legs [legs 3-6 on 1d]; -1 DX (see Layered Armor,
Low-Tech, p. 103).
[4] -2 DR vs. crushing.
[17] Protects the legs on a roll of 3-6 on 1d.
WEAPONS
MELEE WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Reach Parry ST

Lenght

DR/HP/CDR Don Weight

Cost

Axe/mace

Gurz (Small Mace) [1]

sw+2 cr

1

0U

10

S

4/11

1

3 lbs

$ 35

Axe/mace

Tabarzīn (Small Axe + Pick) [2]
or [3, 4, 5]

sw+1 cut
sw imp

1
1

0U
0U

10
10

S

4/11

1

3.5 lbs

$ 95

Broadsword

Shamshir (Thrusting Broadsword)
or

sw cut, +1 sf
thr+2 imp

1
1

0
0

8
8

M

6/10
+2/8

1

2 lbs
+ 1 lbs

$ 480
+ $ 120

Knife

Sakk (Dagger) [1]
reversed grip

thr-1 imp
thr imp

C
C

-1
-2

4
4

VS

3/4
+2/3

1

0.15 lbs
+ 0.1 lbs

$ 16
+$4

Lance

Nīzah (Long Spear + Butt Spike) [6, 7]
butt spike

thr+2 imp
thr+1 imp

3
3

No
No

11
11

EL

4/13

1

5 lbs

$ 80

Shield

Sipar-i shūshak (Kite Shield)
shield bash

thr cr

1

DB 3
No

-

S

4/21/9

3

18 lbs

$ 120

Spear

Nīzah (Long Spear + Butt Spike) [6, 7]
two hands
reversed grip
two hands, reversed grip
butt spike
butt spike, two hands
butt spike, reversed grip
butt spike, two hands, reversed grip

thr+2 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+3 imp
thr+4 imp
thr+1 imp
thr+2 imp
thr+2 imp
thr+3 imp

2, 3*
2, 3*
1, 2*
1, 2*
2, 3*
2, 3*
1, 2*
1, 2*

0U
0
-1U
-1
0U
0
-1U
-1

11
10†
11
10†
11
10†
11
10†

EL

4/13

(1)

(5 lbs)

($ 80)

RANGED WEAPONS
Ability

Weapon

Damage

Range

Acc RoF

Shots

ST

Bul
k

DR/HP

Don Weight

Cost

Throwing Weapon (Knife)

Sakk (Dagger)

thr-1 imp

x0.5/x1

1

T (1)

4

-1

3/4
2/3

(1)

(0.15 lbs)
(+ 0.1 lbs)

($ 16)
(+ $ 4)

8

32.75 lbs

$ 950

1

TOTAL (MELEE AND RANGED WEAPONS)

[1] Can be thrown. See Muscle-Powered Ranged Weapon Table (Low-Tech, pp. 75-78).
[2] See Pick (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[3] Hook enables the rules under Hook (Low-Tech, p. 54), and may also damage the victim.
[4] May get stuck; see Picks (p. B405).
[5] Reduce penalty for targeting chinks in armor (p. B400) by -2
[6] See Butt Spike (Small Spear Point) (Low-Tech Companion 2: Weapons and Warriors, p. 14).
[7] If the weapon is hold in couched position, damage increases in a mounted charge; see Cavalry Weapons (p. B397). Treat as Lance (Low-Tech, p. 67) with Damage
thr+2 imp and Reach 3, or Damage thr+1 imp and Reach 3 if the butt-spike is used instead (as shown on the table). Also review Lance (Low-Tech, p. 58) and Riding
Gear (Low-Tech, p. 134) for important rules.
TOTAL (ARMOR AND CLOTHING + FELT HORSE ARMOR + WEAPONS)
Don

Weight

Cost

160
(Horse: 100)

109.63 lbs
(Horse: 60 lbs)

$ 6,199.5

TOTAL (HEAVIEST ARMOR AND CLOTHING + HEAVIEST HORSE ARMOR + WEAPONS)
Don

Weight

Cost

187
(Horse: 175)

123.53 lbs
(Horse: 120 lbs)

$ 9,339.5

REVISITED LOW-TECH ARMOR AND WEAPONS TABLE
REVISITED LOW-TECH ARMOR TABLE
This table is an unofficial correction to GURPS Low-Tech armor table because the latter has some errors: layered cloth is better and is
more costly than some metal armor (Heavy Layered Cloth is better than Medium Scale and it's more expensive than Jack of Plates), both
scale and segmented plate armor are too heavy, there are no lighter versions of some non-metallic armor (Horn, Straw, Wood) and there
miss the lighter and heavier variants of Mail and Plates. Some prices are also too high or too low if confronted with the effectiveness
(Weight-per-DR) of the armor. So here are the corrections.
Yellow boxes are those who differ in stats from GURPS Low-Tech armor table. Entire strip in yellow means that the armor doesn't appear
in GURPS Low-Tech, while entire strip in white means that the armor compares in GURPS Pyramid or in Low-Tech supplements.
ARMOR TABLE
TL

Name

DR

Cost

Weight Don Holdhout Notes

0

Bone, Light

2

$ 40

16 lbs

30

-3

Horn, Light with -0.6 CF. Semi-ablative (see B47).

0

Bone

3

$ 80

28 lbs

30

-4

Horn with -0.6 CF. Semi-ablative (see B47).

0

Horn, Light

2

$ 100

16 lbs

30

-3

0

Horn

3

$ 200

28 lbs

30

-4

0

Layered Cloth, Heavy

4

$ 550

28 lbs

30

-4

0

Rawhide, Heavy

3

$ 100

24 lbs

30

-4

Hardened Leather, Heavy with -0.6 CF.
See Rawhide (Low-Tech, p. 104).

0

Straw, Light

1*

$ 30

12 lbs

30

-6

Combustible (see B433).

0

Wood, Light

2

$ 50

18 lbs

30

-5

Semi-ablative (see B47).

1

Hardened Leather, Heavy

3

$ 250

24 lbs

30

-4

1

Layered Leather, Medium

3

$ 220

25 lbs

30

-2

1

Layered Leather, Heavy

4

$ 480

35 lbs

30

-4

1

Scale, Light

3 (2 vs. crushing)

$ 400

16 lbs

30

-3

1

Scale, Medium

4 (3 vs. crushing)

$ 600

24 lbs

30

-4

1

Scale, Heavy

5 (4 vs. crushing)

$ 800

32 lbs

30

-5

1

Scale, Very Heavy

6 (5 vs. crushing)

$ 1,000

40 lbs

30

-6

1

Stone

5

$ 550

80 lbs

30

-9

2

Jack of Plates, Asian

2*

$ 300

10 lbs

20

-1

2

Jack of Plates

3

$ 400

18 lbs

30

-3

2

Jack of Plates, Heavy

4

$ 600

27 lbs

30

-4

2

Jack of Plates, Very Heavy

5

$ 800

36 lbs

30

-5

2

Lamellar/Mountain Scale, Light

3

$ 600

16 lbs

30

-3

Scale, Light with +0.5 CF.

2

Lamellar/Mountain Scale, Medium

4

$ 900

24 lbs

30

-4

Scale, Medium with +0.5 CF.

2

Lamellar/Mountain Scale, Heavy

5

$ 1,200

32 lbs

30

-5

Scale, Heavy with +0.5 CF.

2

Lamellar/Mountain Scale, Very Heavy 6

$ 1,500

40 lbs

30

-6

Scale, Very Heavy with +0.5 CF.

2

Scale Mail (Hamata Squamataque)

5* (3 vs. crushing) $ 2,000

16 lbs

15

-3

2

Segmented Plate, Light

3

$ 700

12 lbs

45

-3

2

Segmented Plate, Medium

4

$ 1,050

18 lbs

45

-4

2

Segmented Plate, Heavy

5

$ 1,400

24 lbs

45

-4

2

Segmented Plate, Very Heavy

6

$ 1,750

30 lbs

45

-5

3

Mail and Plates, Light

4 (3 vs. crushing)

$ 1,000

15 lbs

20

-2

3

Mail and Plates

5 (4 vs. crushing)

$ 1,400

20 lbs

20

-3

3

Mail and Plates, Heavy

6 (5 vs. crushing)

$ 1,800

25 lbs

30

-4

Semi-ablative (see B47). -1 DX.

SPECIAL MODIFICATIONS TABLE
TL

Description

Applicability

Cost

Effects

2

Butted Mail

- Mail, Light
- Mail, Heavy
- Mail and Plates, Light
- Mail and Plates
- Mail and Plates, Heavy

-0.6 CF
-0.6 CF
-0.25 CF
-0.25 CF
-0.25 CF

-2 DR vs. impaling.
-3 DR vs. impaling.
-1 DR vs. impaling.
-1 DR vs. impaling.
-1 DR vs. impaling.

2

Two-Piece Helmet (Bandhelm) Plate helmets

+1 CF
(or +4 CF^)

-10% weight.

3

Banded Mail

+50%

Removes the -2 DR vs. crushing; DR become rigid; +50 % weight;
adds +1 DR vs. cutting; Don 30; -2 Holdout.

- Mail, Light
- Mail, Heavy

^ = +4 CF according to standard GURPS rules (see below).

COST OF MODIFICATIONS TABLE
Effect (Increased DR, Weight reduction)

Cost Factor in GURPS Low Tech

Revisited Cost Factor

-10 % weight
[Fluting; Two-Piece Helmet]

+4 CF

+1 CF

-15 % weight, +1 Holdout
[Expert Tailoring]

+5 CF

+2 CF

-25 % weight
[One-Piece Helmet]

+9 CF

+4 CF

-30 % weight, +2 Holdout
[Masterful Tailoring]

+29 CF

(Masterful Tailoring discarded)

+1 DR vs. crushing (removes -1 DR vs. crushing)
[Chinese Mountain Scale; Lamellar]

+1 CF
No extra cost from late TL 3

+1 CF at TL 1
+0.5 CF from TL 2 to early TL 3
No extra cost from late TL 3

+1 DR
[Hardened Steel; Leather of Quality]

+4 CF

+1 CF to +4 CF (Depending on item and TL)

+1 DR, -10 % weight
[Duplex Hardened Steel]

+8 CF

+2 CF to +5 CF (Only for some TL4 items)

REVISITED LOW-TECH WEAPONS
Nerf Blades and Sharpness Factor: here every blade (knives, swords) is considered to have roughly 2/3 of weight and 4/5 of cost listed
on GURPS Low-Tech weapons table. The remaining 1/3 of weight and 1/5 of cost is constituted by the sheath (see Optional Rule:
Sheaths, Low-Tech, p. 57).
This not only reduces the weight and the HP of the weapon, but also the required ST and the Swing damage by -1.
The following rules have the purpose of increase the realism, making more difficult for every blade to cut through armor without losing its
wounding capacities against unarmored targets.
- Add to every knife and sword 1 point of SF (Sharpness Factor).
This is an indicator of the sharpness of the blade and it works as follow-up damage only if the attack manages to deal cutting damage to
the target (see Blunt Trauma and Edged Weapons, Low-Tech, p. 102).
If the blade has more SF than target's DR, convert the SF in dice damage.
Example: a Thrusting Broadsword of Fine Quality has Sw cut, + 2 SF (instead of Sw+2 cut).
If the target wears DR 1 armor or no DR on the targeted area, SF 2 > DR 1, then the sword does Sw+2 cut, against the target.
If the target wears DR 2 armor, SF 2 = DR 2, then the sword doesn't converts any point of SF in dice damage, doing Sw cut with +2 SF as
following up attack if the attack manages to deal cutting damage to the target.
This makes sharpened swords' cuts being still extremely effective against light non-metallic armor, but also makes them not advantaged
against heavier forms of armor. Hitting a steel breastplate with the edge of a blunt sword or with a sharpened one doesn't make any
noticeable difference and doesn't improve blunt trauma against the target.
- Blunt or Cheap Quality knives and swords have no SF.
- Fine and Very Fine edged weapons don't add +1 or +2 to Swing cutting attacks but +1 or +2 to SF.
- Attacks with the flat of the blade and wooden versions of knives and swords don't add the SF and deal respectively Swing-2 crushing
damage (hitting with the flat of the blade, both metal and wooden) or Swing-1 crushing damage (wooden weapons) instead of dealing full
Swing crushing damage, thus due to dispersion of force caused by the increase of striking surface of the weapon.
Other modifies
Reversed grip: applicable on Reach 3 spears. There is plenty of historical examples of long spears and lances welded with
overhanded grip, from Greek hoplites to Sassanid and Muslim cavalry. For Reversed grip rules, see GURPS Martial Arts, p. 102.
Shortswords: shortswords have Reach C, 1 for Thrust attacks only.
Spears: Reach 1, 2 even for one-handed grip.


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