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Willy Apel From St. Martial to Notre Dame.pdf


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From St. Martial to Notre Dame*
BY WILLI APEL

longed notes, each of which becomes

SOMETIME during the second half
of the 12th century a developa "pedal point" for an extended comment took place that led to one
ofnotes, often 50 to Ioo, in the
plex of
the most fundamental concepts
upperof
part. The melismatic passages
Western music: meter and metrical
(often with ten, twenty, or more
rhythm. The final result stands clearlynotes to a syllable), on the other
before us in the organa tripla andhand, were transformed into tenor

quadrupla of Perotinus, works that passages of a considerably more conwere composed about 200oo. The op-tinuous design and motion, with the
posite end of the line of evolutioncorresponding passage of the duplum
is indicated by the organa dupla of showing only twice to four times as
St. Martial, written in the mid-I2thmany notes as are found in the tenor.
century. All indications support theThese sections, the so-called clautheory that these organa are in freesulae, are the earliest known examples
rhythm, lacking fixed time valuesof polyphonic composition in strict
and rhythmic patterns. Thus withinmodal rhythm. The tenor usually
a relatively short span of time the proceeds in irregular groups (orstyle of rhythm changed into its verydines) of the fifth mode (longae or
opposite, from the free, "Gregorian"duplex longae), while the duplum
rhythm of St. Martial into the rigidmoves in the faster rhythm of the
modal rhythm of Notre Dame.
first mode (alternation of longae and
While the organa of Perotinus rep-breves). Thus Leoninus must be

resent the complete ascendancy ofcredited with the introduction into

modal rhythm, its first appearance ispolyphonic composition of strict
in the works of his predecessor, meter and regular rhythm. The reLeoninus. Leoninus created the stand- maining question is whether, or to
ard form of the Parisian organa, awhat extent, this novel principle is
form based on the distinction bealso embodied in the "pedal point"

tween the syllabic and the melis-sections (usually called organal sec-

matic sections in the Gregorian mel-tions) of his organa. It is this question
odies used in the tenor. The passageswhich forms the topic of the present
in syllabic style (or group style: thatstudy.
is, having one or a few notes to each While the notation of the clausula
syllable) were transformed into tenorsections in Leoninus' organa is clear
sections consisting of single pro-and simple, that of the organal sections presents difficulties that have
*This article is the result of studies made

not been satisfactorily solved. The
in preparation of the fourth, revised edition
notational characters used in these
of The Notation of Polyphonic Music. I am
grateful to the editors of the Journal for giv-sections are essentially the same as
ing me this opportunity to present the topic
are encountered in the clausula sec-

in much greater detail than is possible in the
book. Abbreviations: OHM, Oxford History of
tions

and in modal notation in general, that is, ligatures, conjuncturas,
schaft; CS, Coussemaker, Scriptorum de mu-and single notes. The difference lies
sica medii wvi.
in the highly irregular arrangement
Music; ZMW, Zeitschrift fiir Musikwissen-

schaft; AMW , Archiv fiir Musikwissen-

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