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Drug Abuse Test Introduction .pdf



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Drug of Abuse Test
2016
International Dept

Country

Situation

Indonesia

4th largest population country, with an estimated 4.1 million illegal drug users,
age from 10 to 59.
Most widely used drug THC, then MET, MDMA, Heroin

Vietnam

Heroin is the primary drug both used in and trafficked
Amphetamine type stimulants are rising, mainly MET

Thailand

Amphetamine type stimulants, primarily MET
MOR, THC, COC, KET, MDMA not many

Philippines

No. 1 MET, No.2 THC
1.7 million addict to illegal drugs (1.6% population)

Russia

Estimated 7.5 to 8.5 million people are abusing drugs
Opiates are the most widely used. COC is rising

Iran

3.5 million people are illegal drug user
Opiate, THC are widely used
MET and other synthetic drugs have also developed into a significant challenge

Brzail

COC is the major challenge, then THC
1/3 of country’s prisoners are drug related crime
THC maybe legalized

Mexico

THC is the most used drug, then heroin, MET
1.5% of total population are using illegal drugs

Data from 2016 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report

What is Drug (Narcotics)?
Drug (Narcotics) is defined as:
Opium, Heroin, MOR, THC, COC, MET
And other regulated stupefacient and psychotropic
substances
which lead to Addiction.
--------Criminal Law of P.R.C

Common types of Narcotics
Type

Items

Effect

Remark

Opiates

Opium

pain relief, cough relief, etc in
medical treatment.

extracted from poppy,
composed of morphine
(average 10%)

Morphine
Heroin

Cannabis

Marijuana

alkaloid from opium
Abuse of opiates can cause
physical addiction

pain relief

Made from morphine, the
most dangerous and abused
in opiates
composed of THC,
the most abused drug

Large dose or long term usage
can cause addictive
psychologically
Coca

Cocaine

a strong natural stimulant to
central nerve system, with good
anesthetic effect and high toxicity

alkaloid extracted from coca
plant, one of the most addictive
drug

Amphetamine

Amphetamine

stimulant to central nervous
system,
addictive psychologically

most abused subtype of AMP

Methamphetamine
Ecstasy

a hallucinogenic subtype of
AMP

Barbiturate

Barbiturate

hypnosis, anticonvulsant,
anti-epileptic, anesthesia

A depressant to central
nervous system

Benzodiazepine

Benzodiazepine

Similar function to BAR

A depressant to central
nervous system

The difference between synthetic drug and
traditional drug
v Traditional drug
v

v

Semi-synthetic drug directly extracted
and reprocessed from original drug
plants such as poppy and Marijuana.

v Synthetic drug
Manufacture method

Mainly by smoking or injecting

v

Complex chemical drug made from
chemical raw materials.

v

Mainly by snorting or oral taking

v

This varies in different regions.

v

It can directly cause irreversible
damages to brain cells

Abuse method
v

This varies in different regions.

Abuse population
v

v

v

It can damage immune function to the
human body

It can produce strongly physical
dependence and intense withdrawal
symptoms appear after discontinuation.

Illegal behaviors such as robbery, theft
and murder may be done in order to
obtain money and drugs.

Toxic effect

v

Addiction performance
v

Harm of abuse

It can directly affect central nervous
system, causing strong psychological
dependence and the emergence of
various psychotic symptoms.

Serious public safety issues like selfinjury and violence incurred by out of
control will be because of mental
disorders after smoking.

Drug Test Methods

Cost

Accuracy

Detection period

Popularity

Blood

Expensive

Most accurate

Longest

Only in labs, not common

Hair

Expensive

Not so accurate,
specimen is easy to be
affected

Long

Very few use

Sweat

Expensive

Difficult to adulterate,
sweat may affect result

/

Very few use

Saliva

Middle

Not so accurate,
specimen is easy to be
affected

Short

Not very common at
present

Urine

Cheap

Accurate

Usually within 1 week

Most common

Market
vPre-employment drug test
vLaw enforcement dept
vSelf test for home use
vRehabilitation center


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