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Two types of basic dyes are:
1. Simple stains
2. Differential stains
3. Special stain
Simple stains consist of one dye and identify the shape and multicellular arrangement of
bacteria.
Methylene blue, Carbolfuchsin, Safranin, and Crystal violet are some of the most
commonly used stains.
Differential stains on the other hand, use two or more dyes and help us to distinguish
between two or more organisms or two or different parts of organism.
Types of differential stains are:
i.

Gram stain

ii.

Negative stain

iii.

Flagella stain

iv.

Endospore stain

Special stain: it was a stain used to stain species of bacteria that do not stain with the
standard laboratory staining procedures like Gram staining. Like Albert stain for
Corynebacterium diphtheriae , Ziehl-Neelsen for acid fast stain
Factors Influencing Bacterial Growth
1. Physical requirements
a. Temperature
Bacteria have a minimum, optimum, and maximum temperature for growth and can
be divided into 3 groups based on their optimum growth temperature:
1. Psychrophiles: are cold-loving bacteria. Their optimum growth temperature is
between -5C and 15C.
2. Mesophiles: are bacteria that grow best at moderate temperatures. Their
optimum growth temperature is between 25C and 45C. Most bacteria are
mesophilic and include common soil bacteria and bacteria that live in and on the
body causing disease e.g. Nessieria gonorrhea.
3.

Thermophiles: or facultative thermophiles are heat-loving bacteria. Their
optimum growth temperature is between 45C and 70C and are commonly
found in hot springs.

4. Hyperthermophiles: are bacteria that grow at very high temperatures. Their
optimum growth temperature is between 70C and 110C.
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