A Brief in The Resilient Composite Systems (RCS) & ECRLC .pdf

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A Brief in
Resilient Composite Systems (RCS) and Elastic
Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (ECRLC) as a
Type of RCS
Kamyar Esmaeili
(https://sites.google.com/site/newstructure1, newstructure1@gmail.com)

SUMMARY:
The Resilient Composite Systems (R.C.S.) could be counted as "The Methodically
Reinforced Nonlinear Porous Materials", also having the high specific modulus of resilience
in flexure. The RCS are the compound materials, with some particular structural properties,
in which, contrary to the basic geometrical assumption of the flexure theory in Solid
Mechanics, the strain changes in the beam height during bending is typically "Non-linear".
The Resilient Composite Systems are made by expediently creating the disseminated suitable
hollow pores and/or by distributing the appropriate lightweight aggregates throughout the
methodically reinforced, fibered conjoined matrix so that; "the strain changes in the beam
height during bending" is typically "non-linear". Thereby, by applying the mentioned method
to make the said composite systems, "considerably increasing the modulus of resilience and
the bearing capacity in bending" together with "the significant decrease of the weight" and
"the possibility removal of the beam fracture of primary compressive type" have been
possible. Through making these particular consistently functioning systems, the above-stated
paradoxical virtues have been concomitantly fulfilled in "one functioning unit" altogether.
The RCS (with the mentioned general structural properties and specific functional criteria)
whose cement materials include the "C-S-H (Calcium Silicate hydrate) crystals" have been
termed "Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (E.C.R.L.C.)".
● Resilient Composite Systems (RCS):
"Resilient Composite Systems" (RCS) are the compound materials, having some particular
structural properties, in which, contrary to the basic geometrical assumption of the flexure
theory in Solid Mechanics, the strain changes in the beam height during bending is typically
"Non-linear". The RCS could be counted as "The Methodically Reinforced Nonlinear Porous
Materials", also having the high specific modulus of resilience in flexure. (As well, Elastic
Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete; ECRLC is a type of RCS with the mentioned
specifics.)
Generally, the Resilient Composite Systems comprise these components as the main,
necessary elements:
1) Mesh (Lattice);
2) Fibers or strands;
3) Conjoined matrix, having the disseminated suitable pores and/or the disseminated
appropriate lightweight aggregates beads or particles. [Here, the general term of "lightweight
aggregate" has a broad meaning, also including the polymeric and non-polymeric beads or
particles.]
1

The Resilient Composite Systems are made by creating the disseminated suitable hollow
pores and/or by distributing the appropriate lightweight aggregates throughout the reinforced,
fibered conjoined matrix so that; "the strain changes in the beam height during bending" is
typically "non-linear". Thereby, by applying the mentioned method to make the said
particular composite systems, "considerably increasing the modulus of resilience and the
bearing capacity in bending" together with "the significant decrease of the weight" and "the
possibility removal of the beam fracture of primary compressive type" have been possible.
Through making these particular consistently (unitedly, integratedly) functioning systems, the
stated paradoxical virtues have been concomitantly fulfilled in one functioning unit
altogether.
Generally, in these consistently functioning units, the amount and the manner of the
mentioned components use in the organized system are so that; the mutual (reciprocal)
interactions among the components finally lead to the "typically non-linear strain changes in
the beam height during bending" (as the "basic functional character" of these systems with
the specific testable criteria and indices) and the functional specifications fulfillment of the
system.
In the RCS in general, the main strategy to raise the modulus of resilience in bending is
"increasing the strain capability of the system in bending" within the elastic limit.
Here, the main tactic to realize the stated strategy is: "creating the suitable hollow pores
and/or using the appropriate lightweight aggregates, all disseminated throughout the
methodically reinforced conjoined matrix", to provide the possibility for occurring of the
expedient internal deformities in the matrix during the bending course, which could lead to
the more appropriate distribution of the stresses and the strains throughout the system and the
more strain capability of the beam in flexure. On the other hand, only creating the hollow
pores and/or using the lightweight aggregates in the matrix, by itself, not only cannot lead to
the mentioned goals, but also brings about weakening of the matrix and its fragility. Hence,
concomitantly, the matrix should be well supported and strengthened. Here, this essentially
ameliorating and strengthening the matrix are performed by giving attention to "the internal
consistency of the matrix" and also via "employing the expedient reinforcements in two
complementary levels": 1) Using the fibers to the better distribution of the tensile stresses and
strains in the matrix, and to increase the matrix endurance and the modulus of resilience in
tension and bending; 2) Using the mesh or lattice to better distribution of the tensile stresses
and strains in the system, and to increase the system endurance and the modulus of resilience
in tension and bending.
In these systems, the presence of the mentioned hollow pores and/or lightweight aggregates
disseminated throughout the conjoined matrix (which has been ameliorated through making
"an integrated, reticular structure") provides the possibility for occurring of the expedient
internal deformities in the matrix during the bending course. By the way, this can lead to the
less accumulation of the internal stresses in the certain points of the matrix during bending,
the better absorption and control of the stresses, and providing the more strain capability of
the beam especially within the elastic limit.
The occurrence of the remarked internal deformities in the said methodically reinforced
matrix during the bending course also means; the occurrence of the deformities in the said
hollow pores and/or lightweight aggregates well disseminated throughout the conjoined
matrix, in two different forms. Indeed, we have the internal deformities in the fibered
lightweight matrix of the system throughout the bending course, in two main different forms,
leading to: A) The comparative increase of the thickness (height) of the in-compressing
2

layers (particularly in the upper parts of the beam) and the conversion of some internal
compressive stresses to the internal tensile stresses (on the axis perpendicular to the
mentioned internal compressive tensions) in the in-compressing layers; B) The comparative
decrease of the thickness (height) of the in-tension layers (particularly in the lower parts of
the beam) and the conversion of some internal tensile stresses to the internal compressive
stresses (on the axis perpendicular to the mentioned internal tensile tensions) in the in-tension
layers.
In the under-bending sections of the "Resilient Composite Systems", the deformities
occurring in the "conjoined layers perpendicular to the applied load direction" during the
bending course are so that; "the initially plane sections perpendicular to the beam axis"
typically shift from "the plane status" to "the curve status" during the bending course.
Thereby, the basic geometrical assumption of the flexure theory in Solid Mechanics
("linearly" being of the strain changes in the beam height during bending) and the respective
trigonometric equations & equalities are mainly overshadowed in these systems.
In this way, through occurring of the remarked internal deformities in the strengthened matrix
during the flexure course, the stresses are more distributed and absorbed, and the rate of
increasing the internal stresses in the matrix (which could lead to the matrix plasticity and
crash) are reduced. Indeed, in these systems, the mentioned internal deformities in the beam
during the bending course cause the tendency of the so-called Neutral Axis of the beam to
move downward. (This tendency to move downward is opposite to the tendency of the
neutral axis of the beams made of the usual reinforced concrete to move upward during the
bending course.) Hence, the more strain capability of the beam is provided.
Indeed, due to the manner of the mentioned internal changes (in two different forms) in the
reinforced and conjoined lightweight matrix during the flexure course, we have "typically
non-linear strain changes in the beam height during bending" so that; this non-linearly being
is counted as the basic functional criterion (with its indices) of the Resilient Composite
Systems.
● The "Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (ECRLC)" as a
type of Resilient Composite Systems (RCS):
The mentioned "Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (E.C.R.L.C.)" is a type
of the "Resilient Composite Systems (R.C.S.)". The RSC (with the mentioned general
structural properties and specific functional criteria) whose cement materials include the "CS-H (Calcium Silicate hydrate) crystals" have been termed ECRLC. [For instance, the
composition of "Portland cement and water", "Portland cement and water and Pozzolanic
materials", and "lime and Pozzolanic materials" all are among the cement materials which
comprise the C-S-H crystals.]
In view of the special pattern of the strain changes during the bending course in the particular
Resilient Composite System called ECRLC, this system, as an consistently functioning unit
with the reticular arrangement and texture, has more strain capability (especially within the
elastic limit), energy absorption capacity and bearing capacity in bending compared to the
usual reinforced concrete beams.
Obviously, employing the said hollow pores and/or lightweight aggregates (such as the
Polystyrene beads) in the matrix leads to the density decrease. [In this way, we can also get
access to the so-called thermal insulation, lightweight materials according to the case.]
3

Thereby, through utilizing this applied structure, the possibility of solving some of the main
problems in the lightweight concretes application, especially the strategic deadlock of
brittlely and insecurely being of the fracture pattern in many of the usual reinforced
lightweight concrete structures, is provided; reaching to the high bearing capacities in the
bending elements (even with the low dimensions & weights) is to hand, and getting access to
a simple and practical opportunity for "the qualitative development of the capabilities for
using the lightweight concretes" is conceivable.
Here, it is worthy of mentioning that, if needed and "according to the case", concomitantly
using some auxiliary methods and accompanying elements (such as the supplementary
reinforcements, connection strips, foam pieces, additionally reinforcing in different levels,
etc) in proportion with these systems could be taken into consideration. However, in general,
these supplementary elements are not necessary to count a system as the so-called Resilient
Composite System (Resilient Compound System).
- Some Applications:
Considering the subjects and particulars mentioned for the RCS and the ECRLC (as a simple
and practical technology), these systems can be efficiently employed as the "in-bending" and
in-torsion elements, and also for making the elements that perform the act of shielding by
absorbing the impacts, shocks, vibrations, and dynamic loads (in bending).
As well, in consideration of the properties as lightness, insulation, durability, work-ability
and the high forming possibility of some components used in these systems (such as a special
type of the lightweight concrete with the high strain capability), and regarding the possibility
of employing the supplementary elements and auxiliary methods (according to the case),
these systems and some of the used components, such as the mentioned special lightweight
concrete, can be utilized in various cases.
For instance, they can be employed in: the construction of the slabs, roofs, floors and decks,
bridges, shields and pieces against blast and expulsion, road side guards, walls & partitions,
kinds of the Slab Tracks and Traverses (under the rails), and various structures and objects
such as multi-floor parking garages, buildings & towers, marine structures & floaters,
intervening structures, lightweight facade pieces, lumbers, cabinets, counters, pips & ducts,
etc.
The said particulars of the RCS & ECRLC have the high importance also in constructing the
high buildings & towers and especially in construction in the "seismic areas". Lightness, the
high modulus of resilience and capacities of energy absorption and reserving in bending, the
secure fracture pattern, the appropriate behavior against the high impacts and vibrations, the
suitable integrity, not benefitting from the high weight and separated materials with the
discordant behavior, etc are among the specifics which are important in this regard.
In general, in many cases, "Constructing Lightweightly and Consistently" can be counted as
the pivotal and practical tactic to effectively increase the resistance & safety of the
constructions against "earthquake" and lateral forces, in the large extent. For example, using
some lightweight and insulating, "non-brittle", reinforced sandwich panels or 3D-panels,
"with the high modulus of resilience and appropriate behavior against the bending loads and
impacts", for construction could be taken into consideration according to the case... [It is
worth remarking that; contrary to the ECRLC, the usual reinforced lightweight concretes,
especially in the very low densities, are dramatically brittle; they do not have the appropriate
behavior and resistance against the high bending loads and impacts.]
4

In the literature about the RCS & ECRLC, these systems and some related structures and
components have been discussed, and some instances of the structure termed ECRLC with
the related details and the results of some performed experiments have been presented.
Naturally, by more studies and practices on this new innovative system and the "Resilient
Composite Systems" in general, these structures and their applications can be developed
more.

***
The Structure and Related Dimensions and Quantities in a Simple Instance of the Slab
Made According to the Mentioned System as ECELC
[also including the simple recipe (mixture plan) of the used fibered lightweight concrete
(as the fibered lightweight matrix) and the said structure in detail]

● Dimensions: L ≈ 120cm, h ≈ 5cm, b ≈ 100cm
● Welded steel wires lattice (mesh) (made of cold-drawn steel wires, and having some unwanted
defects in the welding points):
5cm×5cm – 2.5mm×2.5mm
fy1 (Mesh) ≈ 4672kg/cm2, As1 (Mesh) ≈ 0.98cm2, d1 (Mesh) ≈ 3cm, Es ≈ 2×106kg/cm2
[The lattice longitudinal steel wires were on the lattice transverse steel wires (100cm) at the
time of the in-bending loadings.]
● Supplementary steel bars (as the additional, accompanying element "in two of the tested
slabs")
fy2 (Bar) ≈ 4400kg/cm2, As2 (Bar) ≈ 2.26cm2; d2 (Bar) ≈ 3.9cm, Es ≈ 2×106kg/cm2
● Fibered lightweight concrete (as the "fibered lightweight matrix" having the Expanded
Polystyrene beads (as the lightweight aggregates):
f΄c ≈ 64kg/cm2, fr ≈ 34.5kg/cm2, fct (Brazilian Method) ≈ 14.5kg/cm2, Ec ≈ 4×104kg/cm2
- Recipe (mixture plan) of making the used special fibered lightweight concrete, which
methodically reinforced in the particular framework of the shown system in this study: Portland
cement (Type II) + Micro Silica Fume (8.5% of Cement Materials) ≈ 675kg/m3; W / C+S ≈ 0.425
(with using Lignosulfonate as a common "Plasticizer" and Retardant); monofilament
Polypropylene Fibers (denier: 3) ≈ 12.6kg/m3 (with two different lengths: 2 portion in 12mm and
1 portion in 6mm); Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) beads (D50 ≈ 3.2mm) up to 1m3.
. In this study, gravel and sand have not been employed in the used fibered lightweight concrete.
[Generally, if sand is probably employed in these systems, it should be "fine" and especially,
"well conjoined to the cement material". Otherwise, it will dramatically result in serious

5

disturbances in the behavior of the system and bring about the problems such as; considerably
falling of the modulus of resilience and bearing capacity in bending, brittleness of fracture
pattern, etc. (In general, it is better no non-cement material (as the sand) be used in the matrix if
possible.)]
. Curing of the fibered lightweight concrete (fibered lightweight matrix) used in the slabs has
been performed via the so-called Membranous Method (for 30 days).
. The tests have been done about 90 days after making the slabs, and the compressive strength
of the used fibered lightweight concrete (also cured by the membranous method) has been
simultaneously measured with loading of the slabs 90 days after making the samples.
. Oven-dry density & drying shrinkage (90 days) of the fibered lightweight concrete reinforced in
the framework of the system in this instance have been respectively about 835kg/m 3 and less
than 0.015.
. [It is worthy of mentioning that; generally, the presence of supplementary bars as shown here
is not a necessary condition to count a system as the RCS or ECRLC (as a type of RCS). However,
here, considering the performed studies, these additional elements are used accompanied by
the system named as ECRLC.]

***
► The full paper (in English language) about the Elastic Composite Reinforced
Lightweight Concrete (ECRLC) as a kind of "Resilient Composite Systems (RCS)"
has been presented at:
-

https://www.scribd.com/doc/11530978/Elastic-Composite-Reinforced-LightweightConcrete-ECRLC-as-a-type-of-Resilient-Composite-Systems-RCS-http-arxiv-org-abs-151003933

-

http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.03933

-

https://sites.google.com/site/newstructure1 [Attachment No. 3]

[https://sites.google.com/site/newstructure1 (Attachment No. 6) also includes "this
article" entitled "A Brief in Resilient Composite Systems (RCS) and Elastic Composite,
Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (ECRLC) as a Type of RCS."]
● Reference:
Kamyar Esmaeili: "Elastic Composite Reinforced Lightweight Concrete as a Type of
Resilient Composite Systems"; <http://arxiv.org>; 2012. [URL:
http://arxiv.org/abs/1510.03933; http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1510/1510.03933.pdf ]
Or: The Internet Journal of Innovative Technology and Creative Engineering (IJITCE); 2012;
2(8): 1-22. [URL: http://ia800305.us.archive.org/34/items/IJITCE/vol2no801.pdf; also
archived
at: http://www.webcitation.org/6B2pFPpBh or http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=https
%3A%2F%2Fia601207.us.archive.org%2F34%2Fitems%2FIJITCE%2Fvol2no801.pdf&date=2
012-09-29]

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