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Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian

Pacific Linguistics 581
Pacific Linguistics is a publisher specialising in grammars and linguistic descriptions,
dictionaries and other materials on languages of the Pacific, Taiwan, the Philippines,
Indonesia, East Timor, southeast and south Asia, and Australia.
Pacific Linguistics, established in 1963 through an initial grant from the Hunter Douglas
Fund, is associated with the Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies at The
Australian National University. The authors and editors of Pacific Linguistics publications
are drawn from a wide range of institutions around the world. Publications are refereed by
scholars with relevant expertise, who are usually not members of the editorial board.

FOUNDING EDITOR:

Stephen A. Wurm

EDITORIAL BOARD:

John Bowden, Malcolm Ross and Darrell Tryon (Managing Editors),
I Wayan Arka, David Nash, Andrew Pawley, Paul Sidwell, Jane
Simpson

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD:

Karen Adams, Arizona State University
Alexander Adelaar, University of Melbourne
Peter Austin, School of Oriental and African
Studies
Byron Bender, University of Hawai‘i
Walter Bisang, Johannes GutenbergUniversität Mainz
Robert Blust, University of Hawai‘i
David Bradley, La Trobe University
Lyle Campbell, University of Utah
James Collins, Universiti Kebangsaan
Malaysia
Bernard Comrie, Max Planck Institute for
Evolutionary Anthropology
Soenjono Dardjowidjojo, Universitas Atma
Jaya
Matthew Dryer, State University of New York
at Buffalo
Jerold A. Edmondson, University of Texas
at Arlington
Nicholas Evans, University of Melbourne
Margaret Florey, Monash University
William Foley, University of Sydney
Karl Franklin, Summer Institute of
Linguistics
Charles Grimes, Universitas Kristen Artha
Wacana Kupang
Nikolaus Himmelmann, Ruhr-Universität
Bochum

Lillian Huang, National Taiwan Normal
University
Bambang Kaswanti Purwo, Universitas Atma
Jaya
Marian Klamer, Universiteit Leiden
Harold Koch, The Australian National
University
Frantisek Lichtenberk, University of
Auckland
John Lynch, University of the South Pacific
Patrick McConvell, Australian Institute of
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander
Studies
William McGregor, Aarhus Universitet
Ulrike Mosel, Christian-AlbrechtsUniversität zu Kiel
Claire Moyse-Faurie, Centre National de la
Recherche Scientifique
Bernd Nothofer, Johann Wolfgang GoetheUniversität Frankfurt am Main
Ger Reesink, Universiteit Leiden
Lawrence Reid, University of Hawai‘i
Jean-Claude Rivierre, Centre National de la
Recherche Scientifique
Melenaite Taumoefolau, University of
Auckland
Tasaku Tsunoda, University of Tokyo
John Wolff, Cornell University
Elizabeth Zeitoun, Academica Sinica

Colloquial Jakartan
Indonesian
James Neil Sneddon

Pacific Linguistics
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University

Published by Pacific Linguistics
Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies
The Australian National University
Canberra ACT 0200
Australia

Copyright in this edition is vested with Pacific Linguistics
First published 2006

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry:

James Sneddon
Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian

Bibliography
ISBN 0 85883 571 1
1. Indonesian language – Spoken Indonesian – Indonesia –
Jakarta. 2. Indonesian language – Variation – Indonesia –
Jakarta. I. The Australian National University. Research
School of Pacific and Asian Studies. Pacific Linguistics.
II. Title.

499.2217

Copyedited by Jason Lee
Typeset by Jeanette Coombes
Cover design by Addcolour Digital Pty Ltd
Printed and bound by Addcolour Digital Pty Ltd, Fyshwick, Canberra

Table of contents

Preface
Abbreviations

ix
xi

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.0 Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian
1.1 The linguistic situation in Indonesia
1.2 The sociolinguistic nature of Indonesian
1.3 The informal variety used by educated Jakartans
1.4 The continuum between formal and informal Indonesian
1.5 Attitudes towards different varieties of the language and implications
for teaching
1.6 The nature of this work and the description of variation
1.7 The recordings and people involved in the study

1
1
2
3
4
6
7
8
10

Chapter 2: The description of Colloquial Jakartan Indonesian
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Schwa
2.2 Words with and without initial s
2.2.1 Variables with H and L forms: aja/saja and udah/sudah
2.2.2 ama and sama
2.2.3 ampe and sampe
2.3 Prefixes meN-, N-, nge-, Ø
2.4 Prefix ber2.5 Prefixes ter- and ke2.6 Suffix -an
2.6.1 Forming adjectives
2.6.2 Forming verbs
2.7 Suffix -in
2.8 Suffix -nya
2.8.1 -nya as a pronoun
2.8.2 -nya as a ligature

13
13
17
18
18
19
20
20
24
25
27
27
28
30
34
34
36

v

vi
2.8.3 -nya as a marker of definiteness and as an emphasiser
2.8.4 -nya emphasising words other than nouns
2.8.5 -nya in topic-comment clauses
2.8.6 -nya as a nominaliser
2.8.7 frequent occurrence of -nya
2.8.8 -nya serving two functions concurrently
2.9 Active and passive voice
2.10 Prepositions
2.10.1 sama
2.10.2 ke and kepada
2.10.3 pake
2.11 Temporal markers
2.11.1 lagi and sedang
2.11.2 udah and sudah
2.11.3 bakal, bakalan and akan
2.12 Negatives
2.13 Pronouns
2.13.1 First person single
2.13.2 First person plural
2.13.3 Second person single
2.13.4 Second person plural
2.13.5 Third person pronouns
2.14 Possessive constructions
2.15 Demonstratives
2.16 yang
2.17 Topic-comment constructions
2.18 The copula adalah
2.19 Complementisers kalo and bahwa
2.20 Other functions of kalo
2.21 Words for ‘just’: aja, doang and saja
2.22 Words for ‘only, just’: cuma, cuman and hanya
2.23 Words for ‘very’: banget, amat, sekali and sangat
2.24 Indicators of plurality: para and pada
2.25 Words for ‘or’ and ‘or not’: apa and atau
2.26 Words for ‘later’: entar and nanti
2.27 Words for ‘so that’: biar and supaya
2.28 Words for ‘how?’: gimana and bagaimana
2.29 Words for ‘why?’: kenapa and mengapa
2.30 Words for ‘when’: pas, waktu and ketika
2.31 ngapain and related words
2.32 Words for ‘perhaps, possibly’: kali and barangkali
2.33 Words for ‘indeed’: emang and memang

37
39
40
40
41
42
43
50
50
53
53
54
54
55
55
56
58
59
62
64
66
67
68
70
72
77
78
79
80
82
83
83
84
86
88
89
90
92
92
94
96
96

vii
2.34 Words for ‘to like’: doyan, demen and suka
2.35 Words for ‘like, resembling’: kayak and seperti
2.36 Words for ‘want, desire’: pengen and ingin
2.37 Words for ‘give’: kasi(h) and beri(kan)
2.38 Words for ‘say’: bilang and katakan
2.39 Words for ‘talk, speak; say’: ngomong and bicara
2.40 Words for ‘big’: gede and besar
2.41 ‘Slang’ words: cowok, cewek and bokap, nyokap
2.41.1 cowok and cewek
2.41.2 cokap and nyokap
Chapter 3: Pragmatic aspects of colloquial discourse
3.0 Introduction
3.1 The context-bound nature of CJI
3.1.1
Ellipsis
3.1.2
The functions of sama
3.1.3
Shared knowledge
3.1.4
The use of quotations
3.1.5
Use of the listener’s name
3.2 Discourse particles
3.2.1
deh
3.2.2
dong
3.2.3
kan
3.2.4
kek
3.2.5
kok as a questioning particle
3.2.6
kok as an emphasising particle
3.2.7
loh
3.2.8
mah
3.2.9
masa
3.2.10 nah
3.2.11 nih and tuh
3.2.12 sih
3.2.13 ya ~ yah
3.2.14 yuk
3.2.15 Combinations of particles
3.3 Other pragmatic characteristics of CJI speech
3.3.1
tau nggak? and ngerti nggak?
3.3.2
gitu, gini and derivatives
3.3.3 kayaknya
3.3.4
trus and lalu

97
98
100
100
101
102
104
105
105
106
108
108
108
109
112
113
116
117
117
118
118
119
122
122
123
123
124
125
125
126
126
128
130
130
131
131
132
136
137

viii
Chapter 4: Texts and translations
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Conversation [03]
4.2 Interview [12]
4.3 Interview [13]
4.4 Interview [17]
4.5 Interview [19]
4.6 Conversation [24]

139
139
142
165
179
198
217
236

Appendix A: Recordings and speakers in the study

264

Appendix B: Statistics: relative frequencies of H and L forms

267

References

284


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