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O6 Proteins, Carb&#1 .pdf


Original filename: O6 Proteins, Carb&#1.pdf
Title: O-Chem Session 6: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Author: Jordan

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O-Chem Session 6: Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
Proteins
Primary Structure
Amino Acid Sequence
Secondary Structure
Alpha-helix
Beta-sheet
Tertiary Structure
Organization of secondary structures
In globular proteins, hydrophobic residues are sequestered in the interior of the protein while hydrophobic
residues are on the outer surface.
Disulfide bridges between cysteine residues
Quaternary Structure
Interaction of multiple subunits (separate peptide chains) as in hemoglobin
Amino Acids
H O
H3N+
R1

+

H3N+

H O

H O

H O
O

O

H3N+

R2

R1

N
H

O
R2

peptide bond

D vs. L-amino acids
Essential amino acids can’t be synthesized by an organism and so must be part of the dietary intake.
Polar (hydrophilic) vs Non-polar (hydrophobic) side chains
Acidic vs. Basic
Proline puts kinks into the peptide structure
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose, galactose,
Oligosaccharides – sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose) are disaccharides
Polysaccharides – starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin, etc.
D vs. L-sugars
Aldose vs. Ketose
Pentose vs. Hexose
Furanose vs Pyranose
Acetals (ketals) and Hemi-acetals (hemi-ketals)
Anomeric carbon and alpha (down) vs. beta (up)
Reducing sugars (Benedict’s Test)
All open chain aldoses and ketoses and hemi-acetals are reducing
All acetals are non-reducing sugars

Lipids
Triacylglycerols (triglycerides)

Fatty acid salts are used as soaps

Phospholipids

Cholesterol
Membrane fluidity
Steroid precursor

Nucleic Acids
Purines (Adenine and Guanosine)

ATP hydrolysis and pyrophosphate hydrolysis

Pyrimidines (Cytidine, Thymidine, Uracil)


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