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1c Organic Functional Groups (1) .pdf


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FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ARE GROUPS OF ATOMS IN ORGANIC MOLECULES THAT ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CHARACTERISTIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF THOSE MOLECULES.
IN THE GENERAL FORMULAE SHOWN BELOW FOR EACH FUNCTIONAL GROUP, ‘R’ REPRESENTS THE REST OF THE MOLECULE, AND ‘X’ REPRESENTS ANY HALOGEN ATOM.
HYDROCARBONS

H H
R1 C C R2
H H

ALKANE

R1

C

R3

C

R2
R4

ALKeNE

HALOGEN HETEROATOMICS

R1

C

C

Naming: -ene
e.g. ethene

O

O

O

C

C

C

H

ALDEHYDE

Naming: -al
e.g. ethanal

R

NH2

AMINE

Naming: -amine
e.g. ethanamine

R1

R2

KETONE

Naming: -one
e.g. propanone

R

C

NITRILE

N

Naming: -nitrile
e.g. ethanenitrile

R2

ALKyNE

Naming: -ane
e.g. ethane

R

C

SIMPLE OXYGEN HETEROATOMICS

Naming: -yne
e.g. ethyne

R

OH

Naming: -oic acid
e.g. ethanoic acid

R1

C

R OH

ALCOHOL

Naming: -ol
e.g. ethanol

O

CARBOXYLIC ACID

N

CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

R1

Naming: -imine
e.g. ethanimine

C

N

C

R2

Naming: -oxy -ane
e.g. methoxyethane

R1 C
R3

R2

R1

ISOCYANaTE

Naming: -yl isocyanate
e.g. ethyl isocyanate

O

C

AROMATIC

R

R2
R4

Naming: -ene oxide
e.g. ethene oxide

OR2

Naming: -yl -oate
e.g. ethyl ethanoate

N N

R2

AZO COMPOUND
Naming: azoe.g. azoethane

C

R

Naming: haloe.g. chloroethane

O
NH2

AMIDE

Naming: -amide
e.g. ethanamide

R

X

haloalkane

O

ESTER

R1

O

C

SULFUR-BASED

Epoxide

O

Naming: -oic anhydride
e.g. ethanoic anhydride

R

IMINE

O

O

ETHER

O

ACID ANHYDRIDE

R3
R2

C

R1

NITROGEN-BASED

SH

THIOL

Naming: -thiol
e.g. methanethiol

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R

C

X

ACYL HALIDE

Naming: -oyl halide
e.g. ethanoyl chloride

R

ARENE

Naming: -yl benzene
e.g. ethyl benzene

BY

NC

ND


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