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16. Ebola Virus Disease anja.boehme.pdf


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BIOTERRORBIBLE.COM: There is an ever expanding list of potential bio-terror agents that could
be used in a bio-terror attack, but anthrax, smallpox and flu are the only “threats” the government
appears worried about. These 3 agents will likely be used the same way that they were used in the
U.S. government bio-terror war-games entitled Dark Winter and Atlantic Storm.
Title: Ebola Virus Disease
Date: 2012
Source: Wikipedia
Abstract: Ebola virus disease (EVD) (or more commonly, Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF)) is the
name for the human disease which may be caused by any of the five known ebolaviruses. These five
viruses are: Bundibugyo Ebolavirus (BEBOV or BDBV), Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV or ambiguously,
EBOV), Sudan Ebolavirus (SEBOV or SUDV), Reston Ebolavirus (REBOV) and Taï Forest
virus (TAFV, formerly and more commonly Cote d'Ivoire Ebolavirus (Ivory Coast Ebolavirus,
CIEBOV)). EVD is a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF), and is clinically nearly indistinguishable
from Marburg virus disease (MVD).
Classification
The genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were originally classified as the species of the nowobsolete Filovirus genus. In March 1998, the Vertebrate Virus Subcommittee proposed in
the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) to change the Filovirus genus to
the Filoviridae family with two specific genera: Ebola-like viruses and Marburg-like viruses. This
proposal was implemented in Washington, D.C., as of April 2001 and in Paris as of July 2002. In 2000
another proposal was made in Washington, D.C., to change the "-like viruses" to "-virus" resulting in
today's Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus
Rates of genetic change are one hundred times slower than influenza A in humans, but on the same
magnitude as those of hepatitis B. Extrapolating backwards using these rates indicates that
Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus diverged several thousand years ago. However, paleoviruses (genomic
fossils) of filoviruses (Filoviridae) found in mammals indicate that the family itself is at least tens of
millions of years old. Viral fossils that are closely related to ebolaviruses have been found in the
genome of the Chinese hamster.
The Five Characterised Ebola Species Are:
Zaire Ebolavirus (ZEBOV)
Also known simply as the Zaire virus, ZEBOV has the highest case-fatality rate, up to 90% in some
epidemics, with an average case fatality rate of approximately 83% over 27 years. There have been
more outbreaks of Zaire ebolavirus than of any other species. The first outbreak took place on 26
August, 1976 in Yambuku. Mabalo Lokela, a 44-year-old schoolteacher, became the first recorded
case. The symptoms resembled malaria, and subsequent patients received quinine. Transmission
has been attributed to reuse of unsterilized needles and close personal contact.
Sudan Ebolavirus (SEBOV)
Like the Zaire virus, SEBOV emerged in 1976; it was at first assumed to be identical with the Zaire
species. SEBOV is believed to have broken out first amongst cotton factory workers in Nzara, Sudan,
with the first case reported as a worker exposed to a potential natural reservoir. Scientists tested local
animals and insects in response to this; however, none tested positive for the virus. The carrier is still
unknown. The lack of barrier nursing (or "bedside isolation") facilitated the spread of the disease. The