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16. Ebola Virus Disease anja.boehme.pdf


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9. 1996: EBOV: Mayibout 2, Gabon: 31/21 (68%)
10. 1996: EBOV: Sergiyev Posad, Russia: 1/1 (100%) [laboratory accident]
11. 1996–1997: EBOV: Ogooué-Ivindo Province, Gabon; Cuvette-Ouest Department, Republic
of the Congo: 62/46 (74%)
12. 2000–2001: SUDV: Gulu, Mbarara, and Masindi Districts, Uganda: 425/224 (53%)
13. 2001–2002: EBOV: Ogooué-Ivindo Province, Gabon; Cuvette-Ouest Department, Republic
of the Congo: 124/97 (78%)
14. 2002: EBOV: Ogooué-Ivindo Province, Gabon; Cuvette-Ouest Department, Republic of the
Congo: 11/10 (91%)
15. 2002–2003: EBOV: Cuvette-Ouest Department, Republic of the Congo; Ogooué-Ivindo
Province, Gabon: 143/128 (90%)
16. 2003–2004: EBOV: Cuvette-Ouest Department, Republic of the Congo: 35/29 (83%)
17. 2004: EBOV: Koltsovo, Russia: 1/1 (100%) [laboratory accident]
18. 2004: SUDV: Yambio County, Sudan: 17/7 (41%)
19. 2005: EBOV: Cuvette-Ouest Department, Republic of the Congo: 11/9 (82%)
20. 2007: EBOV: Kasai Occidental Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo: 264/186
(71%)
21. 2007–2008: BDBV: Bundibugyo District, Uganda: 116/39 (34%)
22. 2008–2009: EBOV: Kasai Occidental Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo: 32/15
(47%)
23. 2011: SUDV Luweero District, Uganda: 1/1 (100%)
While investigating an outbreak of Simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) in November 1989, an
electron microscopist from USAMRIID discovered filoviruses similar in appearance to Ebola in tissue
samples taken from Crab-eating Macaque imported from the Philippines to Hazleton Laboratories
Reston, Virginia. Due to the lethality of the suspected and previously obscure virus, the investigation
[citation needed]
quickly attracted attention.
Blood samples were taken from 178 animal handlers during the
incident. Of those, six animal handlers eventually seroconverted. When the handlers failed to become
ill, the CDC concluded that the virus had a very low pathogenicity to humans.
The Philippines and the United States had no previous cases of infection, and upon further isolation it
was concluded to be another strain of Ebola or a new filovirus of Asian origin, and named Reston
ebolavirus (REBOV) after the location of the incident. Because of the virus's high mortality, it is a
potential agent for biological warfare. In 1992, members of Japan's Aum Shinrikyo cult considered
using Ebola as a terror weapon. Their leader, Shoko Asahara, led about 40 members to Zaire under
[106]
the guise of offering medical aid to Ebola victims in a presumed attempt to acquire a virus sample.
Given the lethal nature of Ebola, and since no approved vaccine or treatment is available, it is
classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention. It has the potential to be weaponized for use in biological
warfare. The effectiveness as a biological weapon is compromised by its rapid lethality as patients
quickly die off before they are capable of effectively spreading the contagion. The attention gathered
from the outbreak in Reston prompted an increase in public interest, leading to the publication of
numerous fictional works and a non-fiction work authored by Richard Preston known as The Hot
Zone.