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16. Ebola Virus Disease anja.boehme.pdf


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The BBC reports in a study that frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted in the deaths of 5,000
gorillas.
Recent Cases
As of August 30, 2007, 103 people (100 adults and three children) were infected by a suspected
hemorrhagic fever outbreak in the village of Kampungu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The
outbreak started after the funerals of two village chiefs, and 217 people in four villages fell ill. The
World Health Organization sent a team to take blood samples for analysis and confirmed that many of
the cases are the result of Ebolavirus. The Congo's last major Ebola epidemic killed 245 people in
1995 in Kikwit, about 200 miles (320 km) from the source of the August 2007 outbreak.
On November 30, 2007, the Uganda Ministry of Health confirmed an outbreak of Ebola in the
Bundibugyo District. After confirmation of samples tested by the United States National Reference
Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control, the World Health Organization confirmed the
presence of a new species of Ebolavirus which is now tentatively named Bundibugyo. The epidemic
came to an official end on February 20, 2008. While it lasted, 149 cases of this new strain were
reported, and 37 of those led to deaths.
An International Symposium to explore the environment and filovirus, cell system and filovirus
interaction, and filovirus treatment and prevention was held at Centre Culturel Français, Libreville,
Gabon, during March 2008. The virus appeared in southern Kasai Occidental on November 27, 2008,
and blood and stool samples were sent to laboratories in Gabon and South Africa for identification.
On December 25, 2008, a mysterious disease that had killed 11 and infected 21 people in southern
Democratic Republic of Congo was identified as the Ebola virus. Doctors Without Borders reported 11
deaths as of Monday 29 December 2008 in the Western Kasai province of the Democratic Republic of
Congo, stating that a further 24 cases were being treated. In January 2009, Angola closed down part
of its border with DRC to prevent the spread of the outbreak.
On March 12, 2009, an unidentified 45-year-old scientist from Germany accidentally pricked her finger
with a needle used to inject Ebola into lab mice. She was given an experimental vaccine never before
used on humans. Since the peak period for an outbreak during the 21-day Ebola incubation period
has passed as of April 2, 2009, she has been declared healthy and safe. It remains unclear whether
or not she was ever actually infected with the virus.
In May 2011, a 12-year-old girl in Uganda died from Ebola (Sudan subspecies). No further cases
were recorded.
In December 2011, an unidentified woman presented at a Nairobi hospital with "Ebola-like symptoms"
and subsequently expired. The pathogen has yet to be identified.
History
For more about the outbreak in Virginia, see Reston ebolavirus.
Ebolavirus first emerged in 1976 in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire and Sudan. The
strain of Ebola that broke out in Zaire has one of the highest case fatality rates of any human
pathogenic virus, roughly 90%, with case-fatality rates at 88% in 1976, 59% in 1994, 81% in 1995,
73% in 1996, 80% in 2001–2002, and 90% in 2003. The strain that broke out later in Sudan has a
case fatality rate of around 50%. The virus is believed to be transmitted to humans via contact with an
infected animal host. The virus is then transmitted to other people that come into contact with blood
and bodily fluids of the infected person, and by human contact with contaminated medical equipment
such as needles. Both of these infectious mechanisms will occur in clinical (nosocomial) and nonclinical situations. Due to the high fatality rate, the rapidity of demise, and the often remote areas
where infections occur, the potential for widespread epidemic outbreaks is considered low.
Proceedings of an International Colloquium on Ebola Virus Infection and Other Hemorrhagic Fevers
were held in Antwerp, Belgium, on December 6 through December 8 in 1977.