NTS Book for GAT General.pdf


Preview of PDF document nts-book-for-gat-general.pdf

Page 1...6 7 8910142

Text preview


Building Standards in Educational and Professional Testing


0 i s th e only n u m ber th at i s equ al to i ts opposi te:



I f t h e p r o d u c t o f t w o o r m o r e n u m b e r s i s 0 , a t l e a s t on e o f t h e m i s 0 .

0 = −0

.

Properties of One

a
a : a ×1 = a a n d = a .
1
n
n
1
=
1
:
.
number

For any number


For any



1 i s the di vi sor of every i n teger.



1 i s the small est posi ti ve i n teger.



1 i s an odd i n teger.



1 i s n ot a pri m e.

Fractions and Decimals


Wh en a w h ol e i s di vi ded i n to n equ al parts, each part i s cal l ed on e n th of
the whol e, wri tten

1
.
n

For ex am pl e, i f a pi z z a i s cu t (di vi ded) i n to 8 equ al

sli ces, each sli ce i s one ei ghth (

1
)
8

of the pi zza; a day is di vi ded i n to 24

eq ua l h o u r s , s o a n h ou r i s one tw e nt y -fourt h

1
) of
12
8
)
twenty-fourth (
24

one twel fth (

1
)
24

of a day and an inch i s

a f o ot. I f one work s for 8 hours a d a y , he works e ig ht
of a day . If a hock ey sti ck i s 40 i n ches l on g, i t

(

m e a s u r e s f o r t y t w e l f th s


(

The numbe rs such as

1
,
8

40
) of a
12
1
8
,
24 24

f o ot.
and

40
,
12

in w hi ch one i n teger is w ri tten

over the second i n teger, are called fr actio n s . The center li ne i s call ed the
fracti on bar. The number abov e the bar i s call ed the n u m e r a to r , a n d t he
number bel ow the bar i s call ed d e n o m i n a t o r .


The denom i nator of a fracti on can never be 0.



A f r a c ti o n , s u c h a s

1
,
24

in whi ch the denomi nator i s greater than

n u m e r a t o r , i s k n o w n a s a proper fraction . Its val u e is l ess than one.


A f r a c ti o n , s u c h a s

40
,
12

i n whi ch t he d e nomi na t or i s l ess t ha n nume ra t or, i s

k n o w n a s an improper fraction . Its val u e is greater t h an one.

National Testing Service Pakistan

Overseas Scholarship Scheme for PhD Studies