Nowtopia: Strategic Exodus?1
2844 Folsom Street, San Francisco, CA, USA;
907 Broadway, New York, NY, USA;
Abstract: Nowtopia identifies a new basis for a shared experience of class. Specifically, the
exodus from wage labor on one side, and the embrace of meaningful, freely chosen and “free”
(unpaid) work on the other. A product of three decades of decomposition of the working class,
nowtopians are different from “drop-outs” in general, or surplus populations that constitute
the necessary “outside” to capital, in their conscious withdrawal from capitalist culture and
concerted rejection of the value form. In emergent convivial “nowtopian” communities, largely
grounded in unpaid practical work which creatively meets needs such as transportation (the
bicycling subculture), food (urban gardening/agriculture), and communication (open-source
communities), we see a gradual reversal of the extreme atomization of modern life. While facing
the threat of corruption via re-integration into the system, this constellation of practices, if taken
together, is an elaborate, decentralized, uncoordinated collective research and development
effort exploring a potentially post-capitalist, post-petroleum future.
Keywords: decomposition of the working class, wage labor, use value, collectivity, work,
In the relation of labour to capital . . . labour is not this or another
labour, but labour pure and simple, abstract labour; absolutely
indifferent to its particular specificity, but capable of all specificities.
Of course, the particularity of labour must correspond to the particular
substance of which a given capital consists; but since capital as such
is indifferent to every particularity of its substance, and exists not
only as the totality of the same but also as the abstraction from all its
particularities, the labour which confronts it likewise subjectively has
the same totality and abstraction in itself (Karl Marx 1973 :296).
The central figure of our society . . . is the figure of the insecure worker,
who at times “works” and at times does not “work,” practices many
different trades without any of them actually being a trade, has no
identifiable profession, or, rather, whose profession is to have no
profession, and cannot therefore identify with his/her work, but regards
Antipode Vol. 42 No. 4 2010 ISSN 0066-4812, pp 924–953
C 2010 The Authors
C 2010 Editorial Board of Antipode.