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BOTOX – By Dutchess Neurology .pdf

Original filename: BOTOX – By Dutchess Neurology.pdf
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BOTOX – By Dutchess


Overview of Botox
Botulinum toxin injection therapy (also known as “BOTOX® therapy” or
onabotulinumtoxinA) is used to treat dystonia — a neuromuscular disorder
that produces involuntary muscle contractions, or spasm—that affects
muscles that control movement in the eyes, neck, face, limbs, voice box, or
the smooth muscle in the bladder. The goal of the therapy is to reduce
muscle spasm and pain.

In October 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved
BOTOX injections to treat chronic migraines in adults who experience
headaches on 14 or more days each month. This treatment involves multiple
injections in the head and neck, administered every 12 weeks.
Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin is produced by Clostridium botulinum, a
bacterium that causes food poisoning (botulism). There are seven known
types of C. botulinum toxin, but only types A; (BOTOX® Cosmetic) and B
(Myobloc®) are used as medical treatments.

Botulinum toxin has proven to be useful in the treatment of many forms of
dystonia, including the following:
•blepharospasm–forceful involuntary closure of the eyelids
•strabismus–misalignment of the eyes
•hemifacial spasm–sudden contraction of the muscles on one side of the face
•spasmodic torticollis, or cervical dystonia–muscle spasm in the neck that causes the
head to turn to one side, and sometimes forward or backward
•oromandibular dystonia–continuous spasms of the face, jaw, neck, tongue, larynx,
and in severe cases, the respiratory system
•urinary retention–severe inability to urinate that requires catheterization
•spasmodic dysphonia–spasm of the vocal cords that causes sudden disruption of
•stuttering–repetitions of parts of words and whole words, long pauses, elongated
•voice tremor–quavering vocalization
•limb spasticity (e.g., following stroke )

Our Services:
Loren Forensic Neurology
Loren Sleep Medicine
Loren neurological consultations
Loren Expert witness
Author Bio:
Dutchess Neurology
Dutchess Neurology PLLC provides neurological treatment and consultations service in
Dutchess County, NY. Contact Loren E. Rosenthal, M.D. CPE for the expert witness and
38 years experience treating a variety of neurological disorders like Sleep disorders,
back pain, pain management.
Dutchess Neurology, PLLC.
69 West Cedar Street
Poughkeepsie, NY 12601
Phone: (845) 454-6243
Fax: (845) 454-6491
Email: lrosenthalmd@dutchessneuro.com

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