B121 MTA Fall 2016 2017 Solved .pdf
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Plagiarism: is the term used when a person takes work of another person and presents it as their own. In
the world of writing, it is a very serious matter. It can be avoided by:
Acknowledge others. use unbreakable rule to acknowledge your sources of information.
Express it your own way. explain the ideas further in your own way.
Quotation marks. Sometimes information are very elegantly expressed and we want to use the
original words. So we use the words as a quotation marks and acknowledge the writer.
Referring to management models. Try tying particular ideas to the originators' names.
2. The quantitative and qualitative data.
Managing employee performance involves setting standards the terms and conditions of
the contract, quality of work, quantity of work and interpersonal behaviour.
Some aspects of performance can be measured as quantitative targets:
Other aspects of performance may be more subjective and require a qualitative
when assessing people subjectively, social influences and personal preferences
can come into play. Judgments may reflect ethnicity, gender, appearance or
Assessing performance will be easier if performance criteria and standards have
been communicated to people and they agreed and understand them.
3. The empathy.
Five steps to achieve empathy:
(Mention 5 out the 6 points mentioned in the book)
1- Assume difference: This means being actively vigilant and seeking out
differences in how individual views a situation
2- Know self: to be receptive to another, we need to realize that our own view
of a situation is just that – a view – and that there may be alternative views
that will enrich our knowledge or understanding
3- Suspend self: to be receptive to another person’s views, we need to put our
own ideas aside and try to enter the world of the other person. This is known
as switching frames of reference.
4- Allow guided judgment: Because we will not be sure that we have
understood the other person’s viewpoint, we need to be guided by feedback
on our understanding. This is likely to involve asking the other person
questions like “So your view is…” and allowing the person to correct us.
5- Allow empathetic experience: with the information given, we can then
construct the alternative view that the other person holds. This knowledge is
valuable when for example, we need to predict how the person will respond to
a future message or situation.
4. The sample and methods of sample. CH7
1-Force – field diagrams:This kind of diagram shows the force that are bearing( )أﺗﺟﺎهon a situation and shows forces
which are supportive of change and the forces which are likely to be unhelpful or resistant.
- Suppose the manager is planning the possibility of a change.
- The manger can present the current situation as horizontal line.
- The driving forces, those reasons that are supportive of a change can be represent as downward
pointing arrows that are seeking to push the line.
- The Restraining forces, Those reasons that are resist the change can be represent by upwardpointing arrows that are supporting the line and are seeking to keep as it is.
The thickness of an arrows
Strength of the forces.
- the length of an arrows show how it
difficult to modify force.
- The force filed diagram can help to know the reasons for a change.
- The diagram explicit prompt for exploring the restraining forces that remind the managers to
look for and identify them.
2-Input – Output diagram: Show the inputs to a system and the output format.
The advantages of the first diagram:
1. Emphasis the flow of inputs into the
the operation and the subsequent flow of outputs from it , the use of the arrows will
establish this sense of movement.
2. The diagram will provide the benefit of the tow matching lists, the input and the output
The second diagram includes a general representation of the process that transforms the input
- The advantages of this diagram:1. It emphasis the need for transforming process, something done with the inputs in
order to achieve outputs.
2.The transformation process is the reason for existing of the organization.
3- Influence diagrams: show the influence from within the organization or from outside it .
- The diagram provides chance to identify the external system or bodies which influence the
4- System thinking: is a collection of tangible components (football learn) and intangible
components (Values an belief).
Five key ideas about system thinking:3. Everything in the system are connected (Football team)
4. A system does something (The hospital as system)
5. Systems have boundary and an environment.
6. The system defined by interest.
7. System and subsystem.
- Important points about system maps:1. A system map shows the boundary of the system and the different subsystem inside the
boundary, it also show important influences outside the boundary.
2. A map close not has arrows.
3. The scale and the detail depend on the purpose of the system map; keep the map as
simple as possible to aid clarity.
4. Insure the map are clearly labeled.
5. To transform the existing system into the new one requires system intervention.
Factors outside the system in the environment
Title of system
5-Fish bone diagram
- this diagram can be used by the individual and groups to help to clarify the causes of problem it
help provide a comprehensive and balanced picture and show the relative importance and
interrelationships betweens different parts of the problem.
Greater details from main causes
Greater details from main causes
6- Mind Mapping: - spider diagrams
7-Multiple – cause diagrams: enable us to show the causes and the ways in which have
8-Net work analysis: Net work analysis seeks to overcome that drawback. Specially where
Projects are connected
6. Course reader.
An organization that maintains a strict and formal set of operating procedures is more focused on
system (li) then on creating an environment that fosters a commitment to individuals and the
relationships between them (ren). List the characteristics of this type of organization. (li-ren)
This can be termed the li-ren organization. Which characterized by:
1- Purpose or vision that is attained by meeting shareholders expectations.
2- Decisions that are significantly influenced by financial performance.
3- A consistent focus on system and process that are used to monitor individual performance.
4- A lack of trust between management and staff.
5- The potential to manage through the promise of reward or the fear of failure.
6- The value, attitudes and emotions of staff are not considered to be important.
Staff have little or no emotional commitment to the organization
7. Percentage and the three Ms (numerical).
Is one of the most common ways of enabling people to understand the relationships such as; changes in
cost, clients or improvement in production after staff training.
The cost of a producing one unit of a certain product increased from $20 to $40.
Find out the increase in the percentage of cost.
Increase in cost = 40-20 = 20
Increased cost as a percentage of original cost = (20 /20) x100% = 100%
The cost of the service has increased by 100 percent.
The cost of a service increased from $80 to $140. Find out the increase in the percentage of cost.
Increase in cost = 140-80 = 60
Increased cost as a percentage of original cost = (60 /80) x100% = 75%
The cost of the service has increased by 75 percent.
Last month the producing of a TV manufacturing company was 35 thousand units, this month the
production s 40 thousand units, what is the percentage in production?
Increase in unit of production = 40-35 = 5
% Increase in production = (5 /35) x100% = 14.29% or 14.3%
The increase in production is 75 percent.
The three Ms(problem)
What are the three most common measures of location ?
Find the Mean and Median and mode of the values: 23, 34, 12, 66, 35, 99, 47 and 56.
Arranging it in order 12+23+34+35+47+56+66+99
Mode: No mode
Find the three Ms of the values 27, 13,15, 20, 61, 21, and 13.
Mean = (27+13+15+20+61+21+13)/7=24.28
Arranging = it in order: 13,13,15,20,21,27,61, Median = 20
Mode = 13
8. Ways of evaluating your abilities.
1. Gathering information: think about all the sources of information that you have about
yourself. For e.g. performance appraisal, 360-degree feedback, a recent Project or
assignment feedback, personality tests, any academic or professional qualifications and so
2. Gathering information: Non-Work experiences like think about your social life, do you
belong to a club or society memberships?, Do you play a sport?, do you have any
3. Identify your strength and weakness by using the work and non-work sources of
information, make list of all your strengths and weaknesses, turn it to a questionnaire
then give it to your friends and ask them to rate for you according to their opinions.
4. What do you enjoy? : finding out what you enjoy & What draws out the best in you. For
example: I enjoy talking to great people for gaining knowledge and experience.
5. Identifying your talents knowledge and skills in which you're good at. Your Talents
or "natural” abilities which you have, that you enjoy and are good at e.g. Drawing,
singing. Your knowledge: This may include bookkeeping or computing, e.g. it doesn’t
matter if you are not currently using this knowledge or do not use it very often. Your
skills: this are abilities or expertise that you have gained by training or experience.
Putting it in context: bridging where you are now and where you want to be. Note down the points
under the heading positive and negative. It is not to make judgments because one good point in you
may compensate several bad ones
- A Key of successful negotiation is the attempt to take an all round view of the desired out
comes and to seek to understanding the perspective of others that affect their approach.
- Successful negotiators try to find win- win solution in which both sides benefit and to avoid
positional( )اﻟﻣوﺿﻌﯾﺔbargaining ( )اﻟﻣﺳﺎوﻣﺔin which each side become locked into apparently
entrenched ()راﺳﺧﺔand escalating ()ﺗﺻﺎﻋديdemands.
* Four things that assist negotiations:1- Separate the people from the problem.
2-Focus on interests not positions.
3-Generate options for mutual gain.
4-Agree criteria for solution.
Behaviors that affect negotiations (Negative Behaviors)
1-Irritators ()اﺛﺎرة اﻟﻐﺿب
2- Defense / attack spirals
3- Arguments dilution ()ﺗﺧﻔﯾف
4-Behaviours Chains 5- Counter Proposal
* Behaviors that affect negotiations (Positive Behaviors)
1- Test understanding and summaries.
2-Flag or signal
3-Asking a lot of question
4-Explain how they feel.
5-Review their performance
* Dealing with difficulties: because someone is being difficult:1- Don’t react: Deal with your behavior, keeps focused on the desire outcomes and concentrate
on securing agreements.
2- Look the situation from other person view point.
3- Do not reject – reframe, take what other party says and direct it against the problem. Try to
encourage them solving the problem.
4- Make it easy to say yes and Hard to say no.
10. Peer relationship.
Peer relationship offer mutuality through which each person can achieve a sense of expertise
equality and empathy which are missing in conventional mentoring.
* Conventional mentoring
Exposure and visibility
Job related feed back
Mutuality each party gives and recieves
11. Critical thinking.
Is the kind of thinking we use when we are being analytical: it is informal logic but embraces
the rules of formal logic. Critical thinking involves critique, questioning or skepticism.
As manager, in order to learn more and manage better we should use critical thinking in four
main areas. Explain the four main areas.
Rhetoric: Assumptions and premises used in a case or argument; the form of an
argument; the language used. Question to ask here: Do the conclusions follow from the
premises? Is the language fair? Are the premises justifiable? What is the purpose of
adopting this particular attitude and why I am adopting it?
Tradition: The taken for granted traditional ways of doing things or conventional
wisdom. Question to ask here: Why are things done this way? Is the situation the same
now as in the past?
Authority: The dominant or privileged position. Question to ask here: why is one view
dominant? Are there other perspectives? Why other perspectives are invalid? What
kinds of experiences inform those perspective?
Objectivity: Objective facts are not what they appear to be, but generally they are
interpretations by people and are biased by self-interest, power, contexts and
assumptions. Question to ask here: Why has this problem been raised? Why has this
decision been made?