Anoplophora glabripennis .pdf

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Screening of Emerging risks in Norway (ERIN). Judgments are preliminary and should not be
considered as part of a final risk assessment:

Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky, 1854
1. Taxonomic position: Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae Popular names: Asian longhorn beetle,
Asian long-horned beetle, Basicosta white-spotted longicorn beetle, Starry sky beetle (English); No
Norwegian name (English).
2a. Status in Norway:
Established ☐

Intercepted but not established ☐

Not intercepted ☒

If intercepted or established, provide supplementary information:
2b. If this species is already established in Norway and this assessment is limited to a part of
Norway where it may expand, define this part area of Norway:
3. Area of native distribution in the world and information about introductions, expansions and
eradications:
A. glabripennis is indigenous to China, and is an invasive species in several states in Asia (South
Korea, North Korea, eradicated in Japan), North America (USA, transient records under eradication in
Canada) and Europe (present, under eradication or only intercepted in several countries; see:
https://gd.eppo.int/taxon/ANOLGL/distribution).
4. Sector in Norway expected to be impacted by the species (related to question 10 below):
Agriculture ☐
Forest(ry) ☒
Ornamental/park/garden ☒
Fruit orchard/garden ☒
Greenhouse/protected ☐
Other sector, or not relevant ☐ Describe:

5. Susceptible host(s) and/or type of environment(s) in Norway:
A. glabripennis is highly polyphagous and several deciduous tree genera are potential hosts, such as
(but not limited to) Populus, Salix, Acer, Betula, Sorbus, Tilia, Ulmus, Alnus, Pyrus and Malus. Host
tree environments range from wild and managed forests, park and ornamental trees to gardens and
fruit trees. A. glabripennis has recently been reported on Betula and Salix in Finland. Further
information is given in EPPO data sheets on quarantine pests – Anoplophora glabripennis.

6. Description of damage:
Resin bleeds from oviposition holes and larva tunnels in the bark and later tunnels in the wood. Both
helthy and stressed trees can host A. glabripennis. Unlike many cerambycid species, A. glabripennis
can attack healthy trees as well as trees under stress. Several generations can develop within an
individual tree, leading eventually to its death. Trees are seriously damaged and often killed.
7a. How is the overall probability of entry in Norway, or in a defined part of Norway?
0. not relevant ☐

1. very low ☐

2. low ☐

3. medium ☐

Level of uncertainty:

4. high ☒

Low ☐

5. very high ☐

Medium ☐

High ☒

The probability is medium-high. Availability of hosts and suitability of climate indicate a high
probability, since A. glabripennis recently (2015) was found reproducing in Betula sp. in Finland.
Betula species are widespread in Norway in a climate similar that of the Finnish site of interception.

Frequent interceptions of A. glabripennis throughout different European countries indicate a high
probability of entering Norway. In many cases, interceptions have occurred in packaging wood of
imported stone materials or in the near surroundings of such import.

7b. How is the overall probability of establishment in Norway, or in a defined part of Norway?
0. not relevant ☐

1. very low ☐

2. low ☐

3. medium ☒

Level of uncertainty:

4. high ☐

Low ☐

5. very high ☐

Medium ☒

High ☐

If introduced this species may survive the Norwegian environment since A. glabripennis is
reproducing in Betula sp. in Finland. Betula species are widespread in Norway in a climate similar that
of the Finnish site of interception.
8. How fast is the pest expected to expand in Norway, or in a defined part of Norway?
< 0.3 km per year ☐

0.3 - 10 km per year ☐

10 - 30 km per year ☐

Level of uncertainty:

Low ☐

> 30 km per year ☐
Medium ☐

High ☒

The estimation is based on discretion without data of spread. It assumes that PM 9/15 (1) A.
glabripennis: procedures for official control are applied, but without complete eradication.
9. How large percent of potential environment type in Norway, or in a defined part of Norway, is
expected to be colonized?
<5% ☐

5 - 10 % ☒

10 - 20 % ☐
Level of uncertainty:

20 - 40 % ☐
Low ☐

> 40 % ☐

Medium ☐

High ☒

The estimation is based on discretion without data of spread. It assumes that PM 9/15 (1) A.
glabripennis: procedures for official control are applied, but without complete eradication.

10. How great a negative effect is the pest likely to have on economy including costs of control
measures for the impacted sector in Norway, or in a defined part of Norway? Rate possible effects:
0. not relevant ☐

1. minimal ☐

2. minor ☐

3. moderate ☒

Level of uncertainty:

4. major ☐

Low ☐

5. massive ☐

Medium ☐

High ☒

Most deciduous tree genera are potential hosts, such as Populus, Salix, Acer, Betula, Sorbus, Tilia,
Ulmus, Alnus, Pyrus and Malus. The costs may be high for damages of ornamental trees and trees in
parks, gardens and fruit orchards, and also due to control programs aiming to eradicate or contain
the spread of the species. If eradication programs work, the damages of trees may be minor.

11. How important is the environmental impact likely to be in Norway, or in a defined part of
Norway? Rate possible effects:
0. not relevant ☐

1. minimal ☐

2. minor ☐

3. moderate ☒

Level of uncertainty:

4. major ☐

Low ☐

5. massive ☐

Medium ☐

High ☒

The impact on ecosystems and biodiversity may be serious if extensive forests are colonized and
disturbed, e.g. forests of Betula. If eradication programs work, the damages of trees may be minor.
12. How important is social damage likely to be in in Norway, or in a defined part of Norway? Rate
possible effects:
0. not relevant ☐

1. minimal ☐

2. minor ☒

3. moderate ☐

4. major ☐

5. massive ☐

Level of uncertainty:

Low ☐

Medium ☒

High ☐

Extensive damages in fruit orchards could for example have a significant impact on local fruit orchard
communities.
13. Priority in Norway versus EPPO and EU:
The Asian longhorn beetle, is on the EPPO A1 List of pests recommended for regulation, and EPPO
has developed procedures for official control of this species (PM 9/15 (1)). There is no PRA of this
species in Norway, however the actuality of this species for Norway has increased with the findings in
Finland.
14. Specific questions for Norway:
Existing EPPO documents are supposed to supply necessary information. However, existing PRA
documents are not updated on information related to new findings of the pest on common tree
species at northern latitudes. Therefore, some questions will require separate information for
Norway: (1) What parts of Norway are suitable for this pest considering distribution of potential tree
hosts and comparing climate similarity with other records in Europe. (2) How large is the import
volume along relevant pathways. (3) What are the most efficient methods of fast detection (traps,
sniffing dogs, direct sampling from wood, public awareness) and other risk-reducing measures.
15. Existing assessments:
EPPO 99/7406 Report of a Pest Risk Assessment, CSL 98/6451 Summary Pest Risk Analysis for
Anoplophora glabripennis, PM 9/15 (1) Anoplophora glabripennis: procedures for official control.
Regulations for some of the potential hosts are found in PM 8/003(1) Quercus and Castanea.
16. Requested assessments:
There are no assessments of Anoplophora glabripennis requested by Norwegian Food Safety
Authority (Mattilsynet) or Norwegian Environment Agency (Miljødirektoratet)
17. Recommended type of assessment:
Since EPPO already has a PRA and procedures for official control, an assessment for Norway should
give priority to the specific questions described under point 14.

References
https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/data_sheets/insects/ANOLGL_ds.pdf
Vedlegg 1. PM 5/3(5). Decision-support scheme for quarantine pests (version 2011). EPPO. Kan lastes
ned her: http://archives.eppo.int/EPPOStandards/pra.htm.
Vedlegg2. Guidance to the questions 7 and 10 in the scheme
Vedlegg 3. Ratings used for describing the level of uncertainty


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