Task 6 Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunity .pdf
Original filename: Task 6 - Vaccines, Vaccinations, and Immunity.pdf
Author: Ewan Bonser
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1) White Blood Cells and what they do.
Germs are always trying to find a way under your skin. They could get in through a cut, something you ate,
through the air, or you could touch something and rub your eyes.
Once inside, they start to breed. At this point you are infected and will start to feel sick.
Your immune system usually knows that there is a problem. It can notice proteins on the surface of cells (which
are abnormal), so it can tell the difference between what cells should and shouldn’t be there.
Your white blood cells exist to destroy foreign bodies inside of your body.
They get their start in your bone marrow. They have a short life -- only 2 to 3 days -- so your body constantly
makes more. There are different types, and they all have the same goal: to fight infection.
The white blood cells wait in many different areas inside your body, including:
“Thymus, spleen, tonsils, blood vessels, lymph nodes, small intestine, and adenoids.”
Your lymphatic system is like pathway that your white blood cells use to get around your body.
When you are sick your lymph nodes swell up in your knees, neck, under your arms, and groin. This means that
your immune system is starting to remove the infection.
Lymph nodes are filters for your immune system they get the damaged cells/foreign cells. Your white blood cells
attach to the germs to either destroy or absorb them. They have antibodies that latch onto the germs. The more
experience your body has makes your immune system stronger. The first time your body encounters a certain
type of germ, your immune response may take a while to act upon it and deal with it appropriately. You will
most likely need many days to make and use all the germ-fighting parts you need to fight your infection. It takes
time to learn the germ’s code and destroy it.
If you come across that same germ later, your body will remember and fight it off faster, so you can get over the
infection and feel better.
Vaccinations are the injection given to protect you while immunisation is what occurs after you have
the injection, it stimulates the immune system to recognise the disease so you are protected for future
times when the disease is present.
There are many vaccine complications, which have been acknowledged by the “Institute of Medicine
(IOM), National Academy of Sciences”, including:
“Chronic Nervous System Dysfunction
Brain Inflammation/Acute Encephalopathy
Acute and chronic arthritis
Shock and “unusual shock-like state”
Death (smallpox, polio and measles vaccine)
Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS)
Protracted, inconsolable crying
Smallpox, polio, measles and varicella zoster vaccine strain infection “
Live attenuated vaccines contain a living, but extremely weak, version of a bacteria or virus. Mumps, measles,
and chicken pox vaccines are created with live viruses.
The upside to having a live attenuated vaccine is that it can provide lifelong immunity. The downside with the
live vaccines is that what they are protecting you against can naturally mutate at any time. This means that the
virus within the vaccine can also mutate cause the creation of either a weaker or stronger version of itself that
the immune system may have a hard time removing. Inactivated vaccines contain a dead version of the
pathogen it is providing immunisation against. They are safer and more stable than live vaccines (meaning they
don’t need to be refrigerated), but they don’t cause a strong protection. Therefore, the person receiving the
vaccine may need a booster vaccine down the road to continue to provide protection.
White blood cells called lymphocytes come from the bone marrow but move to parts of the lymphatic system
such as the lymph nodes, thymus, and spleen. Lymphocytes are divided mostly into B and T cells. Lymphocytes
are also one of the main types of immune cells.
B lymphocytes manufacture antibodies - proteins (gamma globulins) that identify unknown materials (antigen)
then connect themselves to them. B lymphocytes (or B cells) are respectively programmed to construct one
exclusive antibody. When a B cell arrives past its triggering antigen it alerts many big cells known as plasma
cells. Each plasma cell is essentially a workshop for manufacturing antibody. An antibody matches an antigen
like a key in a lock. When the antibody and antigen connect, the antibody marks the antigen for removal
(destruction). B lymphocytes are incapable of penetrating the cell so the job of destroying these target cells is
left up to the T lymphocytes to deal with.
T lymphocytes are cells that are instructed to recognize, respond to and memorise antigens. T lymphocytes (or T
cells) add to the immune defences in two main ways. Some direct and control the immune reactions - When
informed by the antigenic material, revealed by the macrophages, the T cells create lymphokines that alert
other cells - Different T lymphocytes can demolish targeted cells upon contact.
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