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Association FGM and HIV .pdf



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Title: The Association between Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in Kenyan Girls and Women (15-49 Years)

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Georgia State University

ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University
Public Health Theses

School of Public Health

5-4-2010

The Association between Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM) and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in
Kenyan Girls and Women (15-49 Years)
Rosemary G. Kinuthia
Georgia State University

Follow this and additional works at: http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/iph_theses
Recommended Citation
Kinuthia, Rosemary G., "The Association between Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in Kenyan Girls and
Women (15-49 Years)." Thesis, Georgia State University, 2010.
http://scholarworks.gsu.edu/iph_theses/98

This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the School of Public Health at ScholarWorks @ Georgia State University. It has been accepted
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Abstract
Rosemary Kinuthia
The Association between Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in
Kenyan Girls and Women (15-49 Years)
(Under the direction of Dr. Ike S. Okosun, MS, MPH, PhD, FRSPH and Dr. Richard Rothenberg,
MD, MPH, FACP).
INTRODUCTION: Kenya like the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be plagued with
high rates of AIDS/HIV. Research has shown that cultural practices have serious implications
for the spread of HIV/AIDS, as well as other communicable diseases. One of the practices that
have been speculated to have an impact on AIDS/HIV is female genital mutilation (FGM).
Despite efforts to eradicate the practice, prevalence of FGM in Kenya remains relatively high.
Researchers have postulated that various forms of FGM may be associated with the spread of
HIV/AIDS.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between FGM and
HIV/AIDS using a representative sample of Kenyan girls and women.
METHODS: Data (n=3271) from the Kenya 2003 Demographic and Health Survey was used
for this study. Chi-square test was used to examine the distribution of selected risk factors across
HIV/AIDS status. Odds ratios from multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to
determine association between FGM and HIV/AIDS.
RESULTS: This study shows an inverse association (OR=0.508; 95% CI: 0.376-0.687) between
FGM and HIV/AIDS, after adjusting for confounding variables.
DISCUSSION: The inverse association between FGM and HIV/AIDS established in this study
suggests a possible protective effect of female circumcision against HIV/AIDS. This finding
suggests therefore the need to authenticate this inverse association in different populations and
also to determine the mechanisms for the observed association.
INDEX WORDS: HIV, AIDS, FGM, KENYA

ii
The Association between Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in
Kenyan Girls and Women (15-49 Years)

By
Rosemary Kinuthia, RN
BSN, Saint Francis University, 2006

A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate Faculty
of Georgia State University in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree

MASTER OF PUBLIC HEALTH
Atlanta, Georgia
2009

iii
The Association between Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Risk of HIV/AIDS in
Kenyan Girls and Women (15-49 Years)

By
Rosemary Kinuthia

Approved:
Dr. Ike S. Okosun, MS, MPH, PhD, FRIPH, FRSPH
Committee Chair
Dr. Richard Rothenberg, MD, MPH, FACP.
Committee Member

iv
Acknowledgements
I would like to thank the faculty and staff of Georgia State University’s Institute of Public
Health. In particular I would like to my thesis committee, Dr Ike Okosun and Dr. Richard
Rothenberg for their expertise and guidance and throughout this process.
I am also thankful to my family and friends for extending their ongoing love and support during
my graduate school journey. I am especially grateful to my parents, Peter Kinuthia Gateri and
Priscilla Wanjiru Gateri, thanks for your prayers and encouragement from miles away.

v
AUTHOR’S STATEMENT
In presenting this thesis as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree from
Georgia State University, I agree that the Library of the University shall make it available for
inspection and circulation in accordance with its regulations governing materials of this type. I
agree that permission to quote from, to copy from, or to publish this thesis may be granted by the
author or, in his/her absence, by the professor under whose direction it was written, or in his/her
absence, by the Associate Dean, College of Health and Human Sciences. Such quoting, copying,
or publishing must be solely for scholarly purposes and will not involve potential financial gain.
It is understood that any copying from or publication of this dissertation which involves potential
financial gain will not be allowed without written permission of the author.

Rosemary Kinuthia
Signature of the Author

vi

Notice to Borrowers Page
All theses deposited in the Georgia State University Library must be used in accordance with the
stipulations prescribed by the author in the preceding statement.

The author of this thesis is:
Rosemary Kinuthia
2479 Peachtree Rd NE, Unit #209
Atlanta, GA 30305

The Chair of the committee for this thesis is:
Dr. Ike S. Okosun, MS, MPH, PhD, FRIPH, FRSPH
Institute of Public Health
Georgia State University
P.O. Box 4018
Atlanta, GA 30302-4018

Users of this thesis who not regularly enrolled as students at Georgia State University are
required to attest acceptance of the preceding stipulation by signing below. Libraries borrowing
this thesis for the use of their patrons are required to see that each user records here the
information requested.

NAME OF USER

ADDRESS

DATE

TYPE OF USE
(EXAMINATION
ONLY FOR
COPYING)

vii
CURRICULUM VITAE
Rosemary Kinuthia
2479 Peachtree Rd NE, Unit # 209
Atlanta, GA, 30350
gichiru@gmail.com
Education
Saint Francis University, Loretto, PA
Bachelor of Science in Nursing, 2005
Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA
Master of Public Health, Prevention, 2009
Professional Experience
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA
October 2009- December 2009
Student Intern
CARE, Atlanta GA
July 2009- October 2009
Student Intern
Georgia State University- (Institute of Public Health) Atlanta, GA
January 2009- Present
Graduate Research Assistant
Georgia State University- (International Student & Scholar Services) Atlanta, GA
May 2008- July 2008
Graduate Research Assistant
Georgia State University- (College of Education) Atlanta, GA
January 2008- May 2008
Graduate Research Assistant
Piedmont Hospital- (Medical Admissions Unit) Atlanta, GA
October 2007- December 2007
Registered Nurse
Emory Crawford Long Hospital- (Surgical Floor & Neuro ICU) Atlanta, GA
July 2006- August 2007
Registered Nurse
Honors and Awards
National Collegiate Award Recipient, 2005
Phi Beta Delta Inductee Honor Society for International Scholars, 2010

viii
Table of Contents

Acknowlegement ........................................................................................................................... iv
List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. ix
List of figures .................................................................................................................................. x
Chapters
I Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1
II Review of the Literature .......................................................................................................... 4
III Methods and Procedures ...................................................................................................... 27
IV Results .................................................................................................................................. 32
V Discussion and Conclusion ................................................................................................... 49
References ..................................................................................................................................... 55


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