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M.H.D. Larmuseau et al. / Forensic Science International: Genetics 5 (2011) 95–99

97

Table 1
Frequencies of the Y-chromosomal haplogroups and subhaplogroups in Brabant and in each genealogical region within Brabant separately.
Region

Noord-Brabant

Antwerpen

Kempen

Mechelen

Vlaams

Total (sub)Haplogroup
& Waals Brabant

E
E1b1b1a1 (E-V12)
E1b1b1a2 (E-V13)
E1b1b1a3 (E-V22)
E1b1b1c* (E-M123*)
E1b1b1c1 (E-M34)
G
G2a* (G-P15*)
I
I1* (I-M253*)
I1c (I-P109)
I2* (I-P215*)
I2a* (I-P37.2*)
I2b* (I-M223*)
I2b1 (I-M284)
I2b3 (I-P78)
I2b4 (I-P95)
J
J1* (J-M267*)
J1e* (J-P58*)
J2a* (J-M410*)
J2a2* (J-M67*)
J2a2a* (J-M92*)
J2a8 (J-M319)
J2b2* (J-M241*)
L
L1 (L-M27)
L2 (L-M317)
Q
Q1* (Q-P36.2*)
R
R1a1* (R-M17*)
R1b1b2* (R-M269*)
R1b1b2a* (R-M310*)
R1b1b2a1 (R-U106)
R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*)
R1b1b2a2d (R-SRY2627)
R1b1b2a2g (R-U152)
T
T* (T-M70*)

3.85
0.00
1.54
0.77
0.77
0.77
3.08
3.08
16.15
8.46
0.00
0.77
2.31
3.85
0.00
0.00
0.77
6.92
0.77
0.77
1.54
0.77
2.31
0.00
0.77
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
68.46
1.54
0.77
1.54
35.38
20.77
3.08
5.38
1.54
1.54

6.94
0.00
4.17
0.00
0.00
2.78
2.78
2.78
20.83
12.50
0.00
1.39
0.00
5.56
1.39
0.00
0.00
2.78
0.00
0.00
1.39
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.39
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.00
66.67
4.17
0.00
0.00
26.39
18.06
0.00
18.06
0.00
0.00

1.30
0.00
1.30
0.00
0.00
0.00
2.60
2.60
28.57
19.48
1.30
0.00
3.90
1.30
1.30
1.30
0.00
2.60
0.00
0.00
1.30
0.00
0.00
0.00
1.30
1.30
1.30
0.00
2.60
2.60
61.04
7.79
1.30
0.00
25.97
19.48
0.00
6.49
0.00
0.00

4.76
1.59
3.17
0.00
0.00
0.00
4.76
4.76
19.05
9.52
3.17
3.17
0.00
3.17
0.00
0.00
0.00
7.94
0.00
1.59
3.17
1.59
0.00
1.59
0.00
3.17
3.17
0.00
1.59
1.59
58.73
3.17
3.17
1.59
30.16
15.87
0.00
4.76
0.00
0.00

6.67
0.00
5.19
0.74
0.00
0.74
3.70
3.70
22.22
11.85
0.74
2.96
0.74
4.44
0.00
0.74
0.74
8.15
0.74
2.22
0.74
1.48
0.74
0.74
1.48
0.74
0.00
0.74
0.00
0.00
58.52
3.70
0.74
0.74
20.74
22.22
0.74
9.63
0.00
0.00

4.82
0.21
3.14
0.42
0.21
0.84
3.35
3.35
20.96
11.95
0.84
1.68
1.47
3.77
0.42
0.42
0.42
6.10
0.42
1.05
1.47
0.84
0.84
0.42
1.05
0.84
0.63
0.21
0.63
0.63
62.89
3.77
1.05
0.84
27.67
19.92
1.05
8.60
0.42
0.42

within R1b1b2 (R-M269) and I2b (I-M223) (Fig. S2, S3).
Nevertheless, the high number of STR-loci could separate two
clusters of individuals within J2a* (J-M410*) (Fig. S4). This
clustering was confirmed by the occurrence of a DYS464.01
micro-variant in all individuals of one cluster in contrast to all
other individuals of the second cluster within J2a*. No further
substructure was found in the network analyses of all main
subhaplogroups in the dataset, though, a huge star pattern was
always observed. The youngest tMRCA’s for the main subhaplogroups were observed for E1b1b1a2 (E-V13) and I1*(I-M253*),
respectively 4182–5855 and 4531–6344 years ago. The oldest
tMRCA was observed for G2a*, between 9326 and 13,056 years ago.
The tMRCA values of the other main subhaplogroups in haplogroups R and I were estimated between 6000 and 10,000 years
(Table S3).
3.2. Differentiation within Brabant
Based on the a priori defined regions in Brabant, a strong
downward trend in the frequency of haplogroup R was observed
from North to South (Table 1; Fig. S5). The difference in the
frequency of R haplogroups was circa 10% between the most
northern and southern part, mainly due to the downward
frequency of R1b1b2a1 (R-U106). There was no clear increasing
trend of another haplogroup from North to South that replaced
haplogroup R. Statistical significant differentiation between the

regions in Brabant was found between the Dutch region (NoordBrabant) in comparison with the combined data of the four defined
Belgian regions. This observation was based on the Y-SNPs as well
as on the Y-STRs (Table 2). No significant differentiation was found
between Y-STR haplotypes within the two main subhaplogroups
R1b1b2a1 (R-U106) and R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*). Moreover, no
clustering related to the geographical region was found in the
network analyses based on the STR-haplotypes.
4. Discussion
The study on Brabant used an optimised approach to survey
genetic variation and differentiation on micro-geographical scale
by combining high resolution detection of Y-chr variation with a
strong sampling effort and extensive and reliable genealogical data
from each participant. The observed Y-chr lineages in Brabant were
expected for Western Europe, with nearly 85% belonging to
haplogroup R and I [11,22]. In contrast to the small sampling area, a
remarkable high diversity was found with 32 different subhaplogroups on the lowest phylogenetic level. Nevertheless, almost
70% of all participants to this study belonged to only four Y-chr
subhaplogroups, R1b1b2a1 (R-U106), R1b1b2a2* (R-P312*),
R1b1b2a2g (R-U152) and I1* (I-M253*). A comparison with other
regions in (Western) Europe is difficult due to the limited number
of population studies with a comparable resolution of the Y-chr
variation.