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ART BEYOND
THE WEST

THIRD EDITION

ART BEYOND
THE WEST
THE ARTS OF THE ISLAMIC WORLD,
INDIA AND SOUTHEAST ASIA, CHINA,
JAPAN AND KOREA, THE PACIFIC,
AFRICA, AND THE AMERICAS

M ICHAEL K AMPEN O’R ILEY

Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montreal Toronto
Delhi Mexico City Sao Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo

Editor in Chief: Sarah Touborg
Editorial Assistant: Victoria Engros
Director of Marketing: Brandy Dawson
Executive Marketing Manager: Kate Mitchell
Production Liaison: Brian K. Mackey
Senior Managing Editor: Melissa Feimer
Production Editor: Laurence King Publishing/Melissa Danny
Senior Operations Supervisor: Mary Fischer
Operations Specialist: Diane Peirano
Text and Cover Designer: Paul Tilby

Photo Researcher: Peter Kent
Senior Digital Media Editor: David Alick
Lead Media Project Manager: Rich Barnes
Full-Service Project Management: Laurence King Publishing/
Kara Hattersley-Smith
Composition: Laurence King Publishing
Text Font: Weiss LT
Printed in China

Cover image: Ando Hiroshige, Ohashi Bridge in the Rain, from One Hundred Views of Edo, 1857 (detail).
Full-color woodblock print, height 137⁄8’’ (35.5 cm). Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge.
The Bridgeman Art Library, London.
Frontispiece image: The Beautiful Bodhisattva Padmapani. Cave 1, Ajanta, India. c. late 5th century CE.
Wall painting. Dinodia/Alamy.
Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook
appear on page 362.

This book was designed by
Laurence King Publishing Ltd
361–373 City Road
London EC1V 1LR
www.laurenceking.com

Copyright © 2014, 2006, 2001 Laurence King Publishing Ltd
Published 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America.
This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any
prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please
submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River,
New Jersey 07458, or you may fax your request to 201-236-3290.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Proudly sourced and uploaded by [StormRG]

Kampen-O’Riley, Michael.
Kickass Torrents | TPB | ET | h33t
Art beyond the West : the arts of the Islamic world, India and
Southeast Asia, China, Japan and Korea, the Pacific, Africa, and the
Americas. -- Third Edition.
pages cm
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN-13: 978-0-205-88789-7 (pbk. : alk. paper)
ISBN-10: 0-205-88789-9 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Art--History--Textbooks. I. Title.
N5300.K292 2013
709--dc23
2012026414

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
ISBN 0–20–588789–9

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This revised edition has benefited from the reviews of Kimberly Cleveland,
Olawole Famule, Curt Heuer, Lillian B. Joyce, Kristy Phillips, and Marilyn Wyman.
I would like to thank the libraries of Western Carolina University and the University of
North Carolina Asheville. Special thanks must also be given to the editorial and picture
research staff at Laurence King Publishing, London, including Kara Hattersley-Smith,
Melissa Danny, and Peter Kent, who oversaw the thousands of tasks that made this
book possible.

MICHAEL KAMPEN O’RILEY
ASHEVILLE, NORTH CAROLINA,

2012

1: INTRODUCTION:
ART BEYOND THE WEST

CONTENTS

1: Introduction:
Art Beyond the West

2: The Islamic World
3: India and Southeast Asia
4: China
5: Japan and Korea
6: The Pacific

10

NON-WESTERN ART AND
AESTHETICS

12

COATLICUE IN CONTEXT

18

QUESTIONS

21

BOXES
Analyzing Art and Architecture:
The History of Art: An Academic
Discipline
13

10

In Context: Wo-Haw between
Two Worlds

16

2: THE ISLAMIC WORLD

22

22

INTRODUCTION

25
25

58

TIME CHART
Muhammad and Early Islamic
Thought
The Qur’an and Islamic Art

26
27

BYZANTIUM AND THE UMAYYAD
CALIPHATE (661–750 CE)
Jerusalem: The Dome of the Rock
The Hypostyle Mosque
Damascus: The Great Mosque
Pleasure Palaces and Secular Art

29
29
30
31
32

104

148

200

7: Africa

228

8: The Americas

270

9: Art Without Boundaries

344

THE UMAYYADS AND THEIR
SUCCESSORS IN SPAIN (711–1492) 33
Córdoba
33
Granada
34
THE ABBASID CALIPHATE
(750–1258)
Baghdad and Samarra

36
36

IRAN AND CENTRAL ASIA
The Saljuq Dynasty (1038–1194)
The Ilkhans (1258–1335)
The Timurids (1370–1501)
The Turkomans (1380–1508)
The Safavid Dynasty (1501–1722)
Textiles

38
39
41
41
45
45
48

ANATOLIA AND THE OTTOMAN
TURKS (1453–1574)
Mehmed II and Hagia Sophia
Süleyman the Magnificent
and Selim II
Recent Islamic Art

50
50
51
54

SUMMARY

55

GLOSSARY

56

QUESTIONS

57

BOXES

Materials and Techniques:
Byzantine and Islamic Mosaics

31

In Context: The “Hakim” and
Renaissance Man

35

In Context: Harun al-Rashid
and Abbasid-Period Books

38

In Context: Persian Poetry,
Painting, and Shi’ite Thought
Materials and Techniques:
Islamic Carpets

42
48

3: INDIA AND SOUTHEAST
ASIA
58
INTRODUCTION

60

TIME CHART

61

THE INDUS VALLEY
62
The Aryan Migrations and the Vedic
Period (1500–322 BCE)
64
BUDDHIST ART
The Maurya Period (322–185 BCE)
The Shunga Period (185–72 BCE)
and Early Andhra Period (70 BCE–
first century CE)
The Kushan Period (30–320 CE)
and Later Andhra Period
(first century–320 CE)
The Gupta Period (320–500 CE)
The Spread of Buddhist Art
Afghanistan
Nepal and Tibet
Sri Lanka
Myanmar
Indonesia
HINDU ART
Hindu Art and Architecture in
Southern India
Hindu Art and Architecture in
Northern India
The Spread of Hindu Art

64
64

65

70
72
73
74
74
77
77
78
79
80
85
86

JAIN ART AND ARCHITECTURE

87

ISLAMIC INDIA
The Taj Mahal
Late Hindu Art in India

89
92
94

COLONIAL INDIA

96

MODERN INDIA

99

SUMMARY

101

GLOSSARY

102

QUESTIONS

103

BOXES
Religion: Buddhism

66

Religion: The Dalai Lama

75

Religion: Yoga Then—and Now

79

Architecture and Gardening
Painting

138
141

Religion: Hinduism

81

MODERN CHINA (FROM 1911)

143

SUMMARY

145

GLOSSARY

146

QUESTIONS

147

BOXES
In Context: Chinese Writing

113

Materials and Techniques:
Chinese Piece-mold Casting

114

In Context: Xie He and His
Canons of Painting

123

Analyzing Art and Architecture:
The Hindu Temple: Symbolism
and Terminology

84

Religion: Jainism

88

4: CHINA

104

TIME CHART

107

INTRODUCTION

108

THE NEOLITHIC PERIOD
(C. 7000–2250 BCE)

110

THE XIA DYNASTY (C. 2205–
1700 BCE) AND THE SHANG
DYNASTY (C. 1700–1045 BCE)

111

THE ZHOU DYNASTY (1045–
480 BCE)

114

THE PERIOD OF WARRING STATES
(480–221 BCE) AND THE QIN
DYNASTY (221–206 BCE)
115
The Tomb Complex of Qin
Shihhuangdi
116
THE HAN DYNASTY
(206 BCE–220 CE)
The Tomb of the Lady of Dai
The Cult of Sacred Mountains
and the Boshan Lu
THE PERIOD OF DISUNITY:
SIX DYNASTIES (220–589 CE)
The Wei Dynasty in Northern
China (388–535 CE)
Painting and Calligraphy
THE SUI DYNASTY (589–618
AND THE TANG DYNASTY
(618–907 CE)
Painting

118
118
119

Cross-Cultural Contacts: Marco
Polo and the Mongol Court
133
In Context: Guan Yu and
the “Romance of the Three
Kingdoms”

135

Materials and Techniques:
Porcelain

136

Analyzing Art and Architecture:
Feng Shui
139
Cross-Cultural Contacts:
Europe and “Chinoiserie”

142

5: JAPAN AND KOREA

148

INTRODUCTION

150

121

TIME CHART

151

121
122

THE JOMON PERIOD (C. 12,000/
10,500–300 BCE) AND YAYOI
PERIOD (300 BCE–300 CE)

152

THE KOFUN PERIOD
(300–710 CE)
Burial Mounds
Shinto and Shrines

153
153
154

KOREA: THE THREE KINGDOMS
PERIOD (57 BCE–688 CE)

156

CE)

THE FIVE DYNASTIES (907–60)
AND THE NORTHERN SONG
(960–1127) AND SOUTHERN
SONG DYNASTIES (1127–1279)
Painting
Ceramics

Religion: Chan (Zen) Buddhism,
Enlightenment, and Art
129

124
124

128
128
132

THE YUAN DYNASTY (1279–1368) 132
Painting
133
THE MING DYNASTY (1368–1644) 134
Ceramics
134
Lacquer
136
Painting
137
THE QING DYNASTY (1644–1911) 138

THE ASUKA PERIOD (552–645
AND HAKUHO PERIOD
(645–710 CE)
Temples and Shrines

CE)

158
158

THE NARA PERIOD (710–94 CE)
Architecture

161
161

THE HEIAN PERIOD (794–1185)
Esoteric Buddhist Art
Pure Land Buddhist Art
Literature, Calligraphy, and
Painting

162
162
162
164

THE KAMAKURA PERIOD
(1185–1333) AND KORYO KOREA
(918–1392)
Painting
The Shoguns, Daimyo, and
Samurai
Sculpture
Koryo: Korea
THE MUROMACHI (ASHIKAGA)
PERIOD (1392–1573)
Painting
Zen Gardens
THE MOMOYAMA PERIOD
(1573–1615)
Architecture and Painted Screens
The Tea Ceremony: Architecture
and Ceramics
Scroll Painting and Calligraphy

167
167
168
169
170
170
171
172
173
175
178
181

TIME CHART

203

AUSTRALIA
The Dreaming: The Spiritual
World
Mimi and the “X-ray” Style
Recent Aboriginal Painting

204

MELANESIA
New Guinea
Papua: The Sepik River Area
Irian Jaya: The Asmat
New Ireland: The Malanggan

207
207
208
208
210

MICRONESIA
Pohnpei: The Ceremonial
Complex of Nan Madol
Architecture in the Mariana and
Caroline Islands
Textiles

211

205
205
206

211
212
213

POLYNESIA
French Polynesia: Tahiti and
the Marquesas
Western Polynesia: Tonga and
Samoa
Hawaii
Sculpture and Featherwork
Easter Island
New Zealand: The Maori
The Te Hau-ki-Turanga
Meeting-house
Colonial and Postcolonial
New Zealand

214

THE PACIFIC ARTS FESTIVAL

224

192
192
192

SUMMARY

225

GLOSSARY

226

SUMMARY

197

QUESTIONS

227

GLOSSARY

198

QUESTIONS

199

BOXES
In Context: The Spread of Art
and Culture in the Pacific

BOXES
Religion: Zen Buddhism

172
174

THE TOKUGAWA (EDO) PERIOD
(1615–1868)
Architecture
Drawing and Everyday Life
in Korea
Printmaking and the Ukiyo-e
Style in Japan
Utamaro
Hokusai
THE MEIJI RESTORATION
(1868–1912)
Printmaking and Painting
THE MODERN PERIOD
(FROM 1912)
Architecture
Painting, Film, and Video

In Context: Japanese Poetry
and Drama

182
182
184
184
185
186
187
188

214
216
218
218
219
220
221
224

CENTRAL AFRICA
Chokwe and Kongo

240
241

WEST AFRICA
Nigeria
Nok
Ile-Ife and the Yoruba Style
Benin
The Modern Yoruba and
Their Neighbors
Cameroon
Mali and Mauritania

242
242
242
243
246
250
254
256

POSTCOLONIAL AFRICA AND THE
QUEST FOR CONTEMPORARY
IDENTITIES
258
AFRICAN-AMERICAN ART

263

SUMMARY

267

GLOSSARY

268

QUESTIONS

269

BOXES
Analyzing Art and Architecture:
What Is an Authentic African
Work of Art?
232
In Context: Artists and
Attributions

234

Cross-Cultural Contacts: Pablo
Picasso and African Art

235

In Context: Maori Images of
“Art,” “Artist,” and “Art
Criticism”

Materials and Techniques:
Lost-Wax Metal Casting

223

228

185

INTRODUCTION

230

TIME CHART

231

THE HISTORY OF AFRICAN ART
HISTORY

233

AFRICAN PREHISTORY

233

SOUTHERN AFRICA

235

203

238
239
239

214

7: AFRICA

INTRODUCTION

238

Cross-Cultural Contacts:
Paul Gauguin and Polynesia

Materials and Techniques:
Japanese Woodblock Printing

200

EAST AFRICA
Mozambique, Tanzania,
and Kenya
Rwanda
Ethiopia

204

175

6: THE PACIFIC

235
236

Analyzing Art and Architecture:
Primitivism: An Art-Historical
Definition
236

Cross-Cultural Contacts:
Westerners and Christianity
in Japan

Analyzing Art and Architecture:
Van Gogh and “Japonisme”
190

The Earliest Southern
African Art
Great Zimbabwe

244

Analyzing Art and Architecture:
Yoruba Aesthetics
245
Analyzing Art and Architecture:
The Harlem Renaissance and Its
Aftermath
266

8: THE AMERICAS

270

INTRODUCTION

272

SOUTH AMERICA: THE CENTRAL
ANDES

274

TIME CHART: SOUTH AMERICA

274


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