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ACUTE & LONG TERM COMPLICATIONS OF
DR. A.K.M. MUSA
FCPS(M); DTCD; MCPS(M)
PROFESSOR & Head OF MEDICINE
BIRDEM & IMC
Diabetes mellitus is a common metabolic disorder
characterized by Hyperglycemia, resulting from
defects in Insulin secretion, Insulin action or both.
• The worldwide prevalence of DM has risen
dramatically over the past 2 decades,likewise
prevalence rates of IFG & IGT are also
increasing.. The prevalence in 2000 of 2.8% is
estimated to be 4.4% in 2030.
World wide and Bangladesh
prevalence of DM (Millions)
Increase in prevalence is due to
1. Sedentary Lifestyle
2. Increasement in obesity
3. Change in food habit
4. Rapid Urbanization
5. Increased longevity
Emerging Epidemic: estimated that one third of the
population will suffer from Diabetes within two decades
Types of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes –
Autoimmune destruction of beta cells (90% cases )
Absolute Insulin deficiency
Type 2 diabetes – Insulin Resistance
Beta cell failure
Type 1 diabetes
Pathology Type 1 diabetes is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease
involving destruction of the insulin-secreting β cells in the pancreatic
islets which takes place over many years.
Hyperglycaemia accompanied by the classical symptoms of diabetes
occurs only when 70-90% of β cells have been destroyed. The
pathology in the pre-diabetic pancreas in type 1 diabetes is
'insulitis' infiltration of the islets with mononuclear cells containing
activated macrophages, helper cytotoxic and suppressor T
lymphocytes, natural killer cells and B lymphocytes
β-cell specificity of the destructive process, with the glucagon and
other hormone-secreting cells in the islet remaining intact.