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Congenital Heart Diseases .pdf


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Title: Congenital Heart Diseases
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Congenital Heart Diseases

Dr. Md. Zahid Alam

FCPS (Medicine)

Associate Professor, Cardiology
BIRDEM

Congenital heart diseases:

60% diagnosed in infants
30% diagnosed in children
10% in >16 years of age

Remember!

● Some defects are not compatible with
extrauterine life, or are so only for a short time
● Some may remain asymptomatic throughout
life & detected incidentally in adult life

Causes
• Maternal infection/ exposure to drugs



– Rubella

: ASD, PDA, Pulmonary stenosis

– Alcohol

: Septal defects

– Lithium

: Ebstein anomaly, TV anomaly

Maternal disease
– SLE: Complete heart block



Genetic or chromosomal abnormalities
– Trisomy 21: VSD

– 22q deletion: Great artery malformation

Majority are still without a known cause

Classification/ Pattern of Congenital Heart Diseases

Cyanotic

Acyanotic

↓ Pulmonary
blood flow

Mixed blood flow

↑Pulmonary
blood flow

Obstructive blood
flow from ventricles

Tetralogy of Fallot

Transposition of great
vessels

Atrial septal defect

Coarctation of aorta

Tricuspid atresia

Truncus arteriosus

Ventricular septal
defect

Aortic stenosis

Pulmonary atresia

Total anomalous
pulmonary venous
return

Patent ductus
arteriosus

Pulmonic stenosis

Hypoplastic left heart
syndrome

Atrioventricular canal

O2

CO2

Lungs

CO2

O2

LA

RA

CO2
RV LV

Normal circulation
O2

CO2
Starts here

Body

O2

Features of
pulmonary
hypertension is
one of the
common

radiological
finding in
congenital
heart disease

If you lost your pen in the room,
you will find it in that room – not in the corridor!

Ventricular septal defect (VSD)


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