JDIT 2016 0618 021.pdf


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120

Patching

Natural abundance

100

80
60
40

20
0

1H
2H
3H
3He
7Li
10B
11B
13C
15N
17O
19F
23Na
25Mg
27Al
29Si
31P
33S
35Cl
37Cl
39K
43Ca
51V
59Co
65Cu
67Zn
77Se
79Br
81Br
83Kr
87Rb
111Cd
113Cd
127I
129Xe
133Cs
195Pt
199Hg
205Tl
207Pb

Natural abundance (%)

Journal of Diagnostic Imaging in Therapy. 2016; 3(1): 7-48
http://dx.doi.org/10.17229/jdit.2016-0618-021

Receptivity relative to 1H (enriched)

Receptivity

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

1H
2H
3H
3He
7Li
10B
11B
13C
15N
17O
19F
23Na
25Mg
27Al
29Si
31P
33S
35Cl
37Cl
39K
43Ca
51V
59Co
65Cu
67Zn
77Se
79Br
81Br
83Kr
87Rb
111Cd
113Cd
127I
129Xe
133Cs
195Pt
199Hg
205Tl
207Pb

0

Receptivity relative to 1H (at natural abundance)

Receptivity

1
0.8

0.6
0.4

0.2

1H
2H
3H
3He
7Li
10B
11B
13C
15N
17O
19F
23Na
25Mg
27Al
29Si
31P
33S
35Cl
37Cl
39K
43Ca
51V
59Co
65Cu
67Zn
77Se
79Br
81Br
83Kr
87Rb
111Cd
113Cd
127I
129Xe
133Cs
195Pt
199Hg
205Tl
207Pb

0

Figure 3. Properties of NMR-active nuclei for biological and biomedical applications.
(sensitivity) were taken from Table 1 or calculated using values in Table 1.

2. NMR-ACTIVE NUCLEI
1

2

3

2.1. Hydrogen ( H, H, H)
There are three NMR-active isotopes of hydrogen, the spin1/2 protium (1H), spin-1 deuterium (2H) and spin-1/2 tritium
(3H). Whilst 3H is the most sensitive of all NMR-active
nuclei, it is radioactive (β-emitter), has a very low natural
abundance (3 x 10-16%) and is difficult and expensive to
obtain or produce. 1H is the most sensitive of all NMRactive nuclei after 3H and has a natural abundance of

Natural abundances and receptivity values

99.99%, it the most commonly used nucleus for NMR
applications and is the nucleus to which all others are
compared (Table 1). For example, the receptivity values of
2
H, 3H and 13C relative to 1H when enriched are 9.65 x 10-3,
1.21 and 1.59 x 10-2, respectively. Even though the
chemical shift range for 1H is relatively small (-1 to 12
ppm), it can produce very sharp and highly resolved
signals, depending on sample properties and the NMR pulse
sequence used.

10