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Essay and Homework Help On Sociology, Race .pdf



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Essay writing | Online Assignment help | Homework help service

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Email: info@StudentsAssignmentHelp.com

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Question
write a 1,400 word essay by using sociological concepts and theories learned from lectures form that
week on the topic: Racial or ethnic inequality. Write an essay to formulate core arguments and
extend discussions. A suggested structure of the essay includes the following main sections: 
Introduction  Literature review  Main arguments  Summary In writing your essay, you may
consider the following questions to check whether you are on the right track (this is not exhaustive
but a rough guideline): - Do you have a brief and clear introductory section? [It introduces what
topic you talk about, why you choose this topic, the significance of examining this topic, how you
will construct your essay, and so on] - Do you provide informative and relevant literature review?
[This part may help you present the research background, showing what research has been done in
this field, what are the major theoretical perspectives or core issues, whether there is any gap in
existing research...] 1 - Do you raise a research question clearly and construct your arguments well?
[The question should be based on your literature review and is expected to have theoretical
significance or practical implication. To construct your arguments, you may use relevant concepts
and theories from this subject as well as supportive materials from other sources. Do not extend
your argument too broadly and without a focus...] - Do you have a summary and discussion about
your study? [What are your major viewpoints and findings? How well have you addressed your
question? Do you have a conclusion? Does your study make any contribution and have any
implication? Does it have any limitation...]

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Sociology, Race& Ethnic inequality

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Contents
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................6
Literature review ................................................................................................................................6
Arguments .........................................................................................................................................9
Conclusion ....................................................................................................................................... 11
References ....................................................................................................................................... 12

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Introduction
Societies comprise of a variety of racial, cultural, and religious groups. In multiethnic
societies, ethnic and racial diversity is apparent where ethnic conflict can be seen on existence on
a continual basis for many generations. Today, only a few member countries out of more than
180 member nations of the United Nations are ethnically homogenous. Sociologists regard multiethnicity as the rule. Furthermore, the extent of such ethnic diversity is very large and even the
largest group in such societies does not constitute even half of the overall population of that
society. Racism has emerged as the major issue in multiethnic societies (Platt 2011). The
research identifies the presence, effect and influence of racism in multiethnic societies whether
multiethnic society has increased racism and how it affects ethnic minority groups.

Literature review
Bailey, Loveman, and Muniz (2012) identify racial disparities in earnings of black people
when compared to those classified as brown. As per the social constructionist theory, the term
‘race’ is regarded as the contextual and multidimensional social construct. A number of factors
give way to the meaning of racial identification, such as self-perception, interactional cues,
prevailing cultural understandings, and perception of others (Bailey, Loveman, and Muniz 2012).
Ostine (2013) and Jarrett (2000) present the racial barriers that add a dimension to routine
problems faced by immigrants in the US society. For Haitian immigrants in the US, colour of the
skin suddenly becomes a major issue, and it is such an issue that the members of the race cannot
overcome (Ostine 2013; Jarrett 2000).
Platt (2011) highlights inequality within the ethnic groups of the society. Implications of
inequality within ethnic groups cannot be ignored for addressing the poverty of ethnic minority

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groups.

Poverty and inequality tend to be interlinked even if they are distinct at the theoretical

level. Presence of greater inequality is also the implication of heterogeneity among those who are
designated as poor (Platt 2011).
Social scientists had maintained for many years that industrialization as well as the forces
of modernization would play a role in diminishing the importance of race and ethnicity in
heterogeneous societies. Social scientists felt that with the phenomenon of breakdown of small
and particular social units, and the following emergence of large, impersonals institutions of
bureaucracy, the loyalty and identity of people would be directed to the national state and
identity. They had the notion that national identity would supersede the identity of belongingness
to internal racial and ethnic communities (Marger 2006).
However, the contemporary world witnesses the opposite trend. In past several decades,
various ethnic groups that were considered to be well absorbed in the national society have
rejuvenated their cultural identity. In multiethnic societies, ethnic relations usually take the form
of high competition and conflict. Popular media accounts of ethnic relations in countries such as
the US and UK are generally the descriptions of violence and hostility. However, conflicts at
intergroup level in multiethnic societies are not always observed. Discord and strife are not
always the key characteristic of races in multiethnic societies. Accommodation and cooperation
are also the characterization of ethnic relations (Bertrand and Haklai 2013; Jarrett 2000).
However, various ethnic groups are treated as per the ranking system of the groups in the
multiethnic society as a result of which they get unequal amounts of valued resources of societyprestige, power, and wealth. Institutions automatically favour dominant groups, while the other
ethnic groups, named as minorities remain in lower positions (Coretta 2011).
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Booth, Leigh and Varganova (2010) study the variations of racial and ethnic
discrimination across minority groups in Australia. They suggest that some minority groups
suffer extreme forms of persecution both in the public places and at work. As per the conflict
theories of race and ethnic stratification, the major reason of discrimination and racism is group
conflict. The split labour perspective shows that occupational competition leads between new
and old immigrants show leads to the outcome of ethnic hostilities and following division of the
working class. Dominant classes or races are benefitted due to more access to the resources of
the society (Booth, Leigh and Varganova 2010).
NASP (National Association of School Psychologists) position statement regarding
racism, prejudice and discrimination also sheds a light on the discriminatory treatment of people
against minority (Racism, Prejudice and Discrimination 2013). When racial inequalities are
present in a society, it becomes difficult for racially subordinate groups to learn and thrive. For
example, individuals belonging to historically marginalized racial groups may be regarded as
less worthy or less intellectual or intelligent from those members belonging to the majority
culture.

In contrast to children and communities of minority culture, children or communities

from the majority culture are allowed to maintain their valued status as well as established
privileges. Provision of such privilege can have the outcomes in the form of better treatment and
opportunities that others can afford within the system of education and other social institutions
(Racism, Prejudice and Discrimination 2013).
The presence of racism harms everyone in the society, but it has the most negative and
everlasting impact on individuals belonging to racial minority groups. Racial prejudice is the
attitude or orientation of a particular group about the position of different types of racial groups

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existing within the social order. People from both majority and minority groups can adopt such
attitudes of racial prejudice. Racial discrimination is adopted by the majority group in the form
of overt or subtle actions, which leads to limitation of the opportunities for the minority group in
the field of economy, society, politics and education. Stress related to discrimination has a direct
association with depression. Stereotypes related to races become self-fulfilling prophecy that
result in negative outcomes for the members of the multi-ethnic society (Racism, Prejudice and
Discrimination 2013; Dustman and Theodoropoulos 2013).
Karlsen and Nazroo (2002) made an effort to explore the relationship between social
class, racism, and health among people belonging to ethnic minority in England and Wales. The
research concluded that varying ways in which racism can manifest itself like institutional
discrimination,

interpersonal

violence,

or

socioeconomic

disadvantage

have

independent

derogatory effects on health irrespective of the health indicator used. Authors find out that the
physical and mental health consequences of an assault that is racially motivated may be different
from those consequences associated with the generally more subtle racism that people experience
in their daily lives (Karlsen and Nazroo 2002).

Arguments
Ethnic minority groups are the result of stratification and ranking system in multiethnic
societies of the world. From the review of literature, it can be argued that racism and ethnic
inequalities contribute to depression, stress and various other negative consequences for those
who occupy the lower status in the social order (Karlsen and Nazroo 2002; Platt 2011; Coretta
2011).

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