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STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING REAL TIME APPLICATION WITH
BASIC INTRODUCTION- II
Latent Vs. Manifest/ Observed Variables in SEM analysis
What is Latent & Observed in SEM?
1. SEM consists of two parts
● Measurement model(s) for each latent variable
● Path analysis between the latent and observed variables
2. Variable Labels
● Latent variable
● Observed variable
measured variable manifest variable
generally considered endogenous
Observed or manifest variables:
Latent variables are not observed directly, it follows that they cannot be
● The unobserved variable is linked to one that is observable, thereby
measurement is possible.
● directly measurable (through questionnaire)
● include measurement error
● The term behaviour is used here in the very broadest sense to include
scores on a particular measuring instrument.
1. Self-report to an attitudinal scale.
2. Scores on achievement test.
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS
1. Exogenous and Endogenous latent variables
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