A closer look at the sugar tax 1 Aug 2016 .pdf

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Business·Law & Tax Review

at sugar tax
Policy paper will benefit from public
comment and more industry consultation
Bowman Gilfillan Africa Group
UGAR tax is set to be introduced in April 2017 and
while the recently published
policy paper provides far
more detail than previously available
ori how government envisions the
sugar tax to work, there is still much
that is unclear and uncertain.
We know that the proposed tax ·
will target beverages that contain
added caloric sweeteners such as ·
sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup or
fruit-juice concentrates. This includes ·
soft drinks, fruit drinks, sports and ·
energy drinks and even "healthier"
drinks such as vitamin water drinks
and drinking yogurt.
We know that the policy paper
recommends that each gram of sugar
in a given beverage be taxed at a rate
of about 2.29c per gram of sugar
(adjusted yearly for inflation), which
equates to about a 20% hike on the ·
average price per litre of carbonated
soft drinks. The sugar content will be

b_a sed on the nutritional labelling of
the beverage, and producers ·that do
not apply nutritional labelling will
have to pay tax punitively calculated
on an assumed sugar c0ntent whic;h is
set very high. This would have the
added benefit of encouraging nutritional labelling of all beverages. We
know that the tax will be levied at the
manufacturer ·level, and not directly
at the consumer level.
We also know that beverages that
only contain sugar naturally built into
the structure of the ingredients, S\lCh
100% fruit juice and unsweetened
milk products, will be exempted from
the tax. What is far less clear from the
policy paper is how the tax will be
applied to beverages that contain
both naturally occurring sugars as
well as added sugar. This accounts for
many, if not most, commercially available beverages.
When describing the background
and policy design options ·of the tax, .
the policy paper explains that "sugar
(ie intrinsic sugar) is naturally built
into the structure of most foods such
as fruits, vegetables and even dairy

products. However, it is sugar added
_ to drinks during proces.sing and
preparation that increases the total
sugar content. Such "free sugars" in
most cases provide limited nutritional
benefits and are therefore targeted
from a public health perspective. Free
sugars do not include sugars naturally
present in food products.
The policy states that "the actual
or absolute levels of free sugars
should be the base or proxy for taxing
sugar sweetened beverages". This
seems to imply that in a beverage that
contains "intrinsic" and "free" sugars,
only the "free" sugars will be taxed.
However, when the policy came to
articulating its proposal for the tax, no

distinction is made between "free"
and "intrinsic" sugar contents.
The policy states that it is therefore proposed that a tax rate of
R0.0229 (2.29c) per gram of sugar be
implemented based on the current
product labelling framework.
The current· product labelling
framework is regulated by the Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and · Disinfectants
Act (54/1972). According to current
regulations to the act, if a food/beverage does not make any claims
regarding its nutritional or dietary
value, it does not need to disclose
minimum nutritional information on
its label. On May 29 2014 a draft
amendment to the regulations

relating to the labelling and advertising of foods (R429/2014) were published for public comment. The new
draft regulations aim to have mini. mum mandatory nutritional information on all food/beverages, even for
products that do not make any nutritional or dietary claims. ·
according to the current and the
nascent draft regulations, the product
labelling requirements do not differentiate between added and inherent
sugars. In paragraph 52(c), the new
draft regulation clearly states that
only "total sugar" content- shall be
mandatory on all food labels. It
defines "total sugar" as "the sum of all
intrinsic and added sugars".
This means that if the sugar tax is
implemented based on the current
product labelling framework, then
both "intrinsic" and "free" sugars will
.be taxed. Only in a scenario in which
the sugar content of the beverage is
made up of 100% intrinsic sugars will
the sugar be exempteq from the tax.
This results in an illogical position
where the tax would be overreaching
from a public health perspective.
Furthermore, even if our reading
of the policy is incorrect, and the
intention is only to tax the free sugar
content, it remains unclear how the
revenue service intends to determine
the quantity of "free sugars" as
opposed to total sugar, ·as the nutritional label will not differentiate .
between these sugars anyway.
This is the Treasury's first policy
document and, as we have demonstrated by just one example in this
article, it will clearly benefit from public comment and much more consultation with industry and stakeholders. The deadline for comments on
the policy paper is August 22.

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