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Large Celiac IBS Brochure .pdf



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IBS or celiac disease?
Testing helps you know
Celiac disease and IBS testing for patients with suspected
irritable bowel syndrome

IBS or CD? Here’s the story, in brief
• IBS and celiac disease share many signs and symptoms
• IBS and celiac disease are treatable
• Celiac disease is believed to have a higher prevalence in patients with
suspected IBS-D (3.6% vs. 0.7%)1

IBS patients with CD vs. general population
• Testing from Quest Diagnostics can confirm the presence of celiac
antibodies and genetic markers in IBS-D cases
• Testing suspected IBS patients for antibodies and/or human leukocyte
antigen (HLA) alleles can help you reach a differential diagnosis for
celiac disease

3.6%
vs. 0.7%

1

prevalence of CD in
patients meeting
symptom-based
criteria for IBS vs.
general population

The takeaway:
• Patients suspected of having IBS should be considered for celiac
disease testing
• Testing for both IBS and CD can identify more patients who may benefit
from either medicine or a GFD

For more information on new testing for IBS as well as our comprehensive menu for celiac disease,
visit QuestDiagnostics.com/IBS or QuestDiagnostics.com/CD.

Is your patient’s IBS actually
celiac disease? The simple
solution: consider testing for both.
A clinical challenge—and a readily available solution
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease are notoriously difficult to tell apart. Whenever IBS is
suspected, evidence strongly suggests you should test for both.

Reason 1:
Prevalence

Reason 2:
Clinical recommendations

Reason 3:
Cost-effectiveness

Celiac disease is thought to
be as much as 5 times more
common among IBS patients
than the general population
(3.6% vs. 0.7%)1

A 2009 Expert Task Force
from the American College of
Gastroenterology recommended
celiac testing for all patients
with suspected IBS-D (IBS with
diarrhea) and IBS-M (IBS-mixed)1

Screening for celiac disease
in patients with IBS-D may be
cost-effective on the basis of
preventing years of morbidity
and attendant expense2

IBS vs. celiac disease
IBS is a complex disorder with painful symptoms that vary from patient to patient. In the past, treatment
required a trial-and-error approach. However, a new antibiotic, rifaximin, is now available for effective
treatment of IBS.
Celiac disease can be fully managed without medication by restricting gluten intake with a gluten-free diet (GFD).
Consequently, serum testing for suspected IBS is important—and every patient with suspected IBS should
also be considered for celiac disease testing. The cost of overlooking a celiac disease diagnosis, as measured
in patient suffering, is simply too high.

Reaching an IBS diagnosis
What is IBS?
IBS is a chronic and common disorder of the large intestine. It commonly causes cramping, abdominal pain,
bloating, gas, diarrhea, and constipation.

Rome III: the gold standard in IBS classification
The Rome Criteria is a classification system for functional gastrointestinal disorders. Rome III is the benchmark
for IBS diagnosis.3

Recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort at least 3 days per month for each
of the previous 3 months, associated with 2 or more of the following:

Improvement with
defecation

Onset associated with change
in frequency of stool

Onset associated with change
in form of stool

Criteria must have been fulfilled for the previous 3 months, with symptom onset at least 6 months
prior to diagnosis.

Subtyping IBS3
IBS subtypes are based on stool consistency and
can be aided by use of the Bristol Stool Form Scale.
There are 4 subtypes: with constipation (IBS-C), with
diarrhea (IBS-D), mixed (IBS-M), and
unclassified (IBS-U).

Serum testing for IBS now available
IBSDetex™ is a new tool for the IBS diagnostic workup:
• ELISA test based on 2 validated serum biomarkers
• Tests for the presence of antibodies to a toxin from
gastroenteritis, CdtB, and vinculin, a protein commonly
found in nerve centers in the lining of the gut
• A positive result supports a confident diagnosis of
IBS associated with diarrhea (IBS-D or IBS-M) based
on a large, randomized, controlled, published study
of >2,500 patients4
• 3-day turnaround time
• Specimen requirements: 1 mL of serum from a
non-gel barrier tube; room temperature

IBS-D/IBS-M pathophysiologic sequence
Acute gastroenteritis
E coli, C jejuni, Shigella, Salmonella
Bacterial toxin
Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB)
Autoimmunity response
Vinculin
Gut nerve damage
Reduced motility
Bacterial overgrowth
Natural flow pattern is disrupted
IBS
Bloating and abdominal pain

Reaching a celiac disease diagnosis
What is celiac disease?
Celiac disease is an immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye.
• Occurs in people with a genetic susceptibility
• Precipitated by gliadin, a component of gluten protein
• Improves with gluten withdrawal
• Manifests clinically in a wide variety of symptoms

How is celiac disease classified?
• Classic: features of malabsorption, fully developed villous atrophy, and GI symptoms
• Atypical: no GI symptoms but evaluated for iron deficiency anemia, short stature, osteoporosis, and other
nonclassic symptoms
• Silent: no symptoms, features, or complications; found incidentally
• Latent: celiac patients on a GFD with normal histology or patients on a GFD with normal histology who will
eventually develop celiac disease

What antibody tests are available for celiac disease?
The most sensitive celiac disease test, and an excellent first-line marker, is the tissue transglutaminase
antibodies (IgA tTG) test. However, other antibody tests are also available.5
Sensitivity (%)

Specificity (%)

Antigliadin IgG

69–85

73–90

Antigliadin IgA

75–90

82–90

EMA

85–98

97–100

IgA tTG Human

93–96

99–100

What genetic tests are available for celiac disease?
All celiac patients carry 1 or both of 2 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)
alleles: DQ2 and DQ8.
• 30% of Caucasians carry DQ2 and DQ8—therefore, genetic testing
alone cannot diagnose celiac disease
• However, a negative test result for both DQ2 and DQ8 rules out
celiac disease with 99% confidence6,7

99%

6,7

confidence ruling out
CD with DQ2/DQ8
testing

Trust Quest Diagnostics for all your gastrointestinal (GI)
testing needs. Our broad GI distress test menu is your
assurance of having the right test for the right patient at
the right time.
Test Name

Test Code

CPT Code(s)*

Gliadin (Deamidated Peptide) Antibody (IgG, IgA)

8889

83516 (x2)

Gliadin (Deamidated Peptide) Antibody (IgA)

11228

83516

Gliadin (Deamidated Peptide) Antibody (IgG)

11212(X)

83516

17135(X)

81376, 81382

19955

82784, 83516

15981

83516 (x2), 82784

58319

82784, 83516 (x4),
86255

94445

83520 (x2)

Celiac Disease

HLA Typing for Celiac Disease

Includes HLA-DQ2 (DQA1*05/DQB1*02), HLA-DQ8 (DQA1*03/DQB1*0302), HLA-DQA1*,
HLA-DQB1*

Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel**

Includes Tissue Transglutaminase, IgA with Reflexes; Total IgA with Reflex

Celiac Disease Comprehensive Panel, Infant**

Includes Tissue Transglutaminase IgA with Reflexes, Gliadin (Deamidated) Antibody IgA,
and Total IgA, Serum with Reflex

Celiac Disease Panel 2 with Reflex to Endomysial Antibody Titer**

Includes Gliadin (Deamidated) Antibody (IgG, IgA); Tissue Transglutaminase Antibody (IgG,
IgA); Endomysial Antibody Screen (IgA); IgA, Serum. If the Endomysial Antibody Screen IgA is
abnormal, Endomysial Antibody Titer is performed at an additional charge (CPT code(s): 86256).

Irritable Bowel Syndrome
IBSDetex™ Test

* The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the billing party.
Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed.
** Panel components may be ordered individually.

*The CPT codes provided are based on AMA guidelines and are for informational purposes only. CPT coding is the sole responsibility of the
billing party. Please direct any questions regarding coding to the payer being billed.

For more information, contact your Quest Diagnostics sales representative
or visit QuestDiagnostics.com.

References
1. American College of Gastroenterology Task Force on IBS. An evidence-based systematic review on the management of irritable bowel syndrome.
Am J Gastroenterology. 2009;104:S1–S35.
2. Spiegel BM et al. Testing for celiac sprue in irritable bowel syndrome with predominant diarrhea: a cost-effectiveness analysis. Gastroenterology. 2004
Jun;126(7):1721–32.
3. Longstreth, et al. Functional bowel disorders. Gastroenterology. 2006;130:1480–91.
4. Pimentel M, et al. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects. PLOS ONE. DOI:10.1371/journal.
pone.0126438. May 13, 2015.
5. Abdulkarim AS, Murray JA. Review article: The diagnosis of coeliac disease. Aliment Pharm Ther. 2003;17:987–95.
6. Schuppan D. Current concepts of celiac disease pathogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2000;119:234–42.
7. Kaukinen K, et al. HLA-DQ typing in the diagnosis of celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:695–9.

QuestDiagnostics.com
Quest, Quest Diagnostics, any associated logos, and all associated Quest Diagnostics registered or unregistered trademarks are the property of Quest Diagnostics.
All third-party marks—® and ™—are the property of their respective owners. © 2017 Quest Diagnostics Incorporated. All rights reserved. SB5341 4/2017


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