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David Sadava Life The Science of Biology, 10th edition .pdf


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Title: Life: The Science of Biology
Author: David Sadava

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INVESTIGATINGLIFE
INVESTIGATINGLIFE
FIG. 1.11 Controlled Experiments Manipulate a Variable 12
1.12 Comparative Experiments Look for Differences
among Groups 13
3.10 Primary Structure Specifies Tertiary Structure 48
4.6 Disproving the Spontaneous Generation of Life 68
4.8 Miller and Urey Synthesized Prebiotic Molecules
in an Experimenttal Atmosphere 70
5.20 The Role of Microfilaments in Cell Movement—
Showing Cause and Effect in Biology 98
6.5 Rapid Diffusion of Membrane Proteins 109
6.11 Aquaporins Increase Membrane Permeability to
Water 116
7.11 The Discovery of a Second Messenger 133
9.9 An Experiment Demonstrates the Chemiosmotic
Mechanism 174
10.2 The Source of the Oxygen Produced by
Photosynthesis 186
10.11 Tracing the Pathway of CO2 194
11.4 Regulation of the Cell Cycle 209
12.2 Mendel’s Monohybrid Experiments 234
12.5 Homozygous or Heterozygous? 238
12.17 Some Alleles Do Not Assort Independently 247
13.1 Genetic Transformation 260
13.2 Genetic Transformation by DNA 261
13.4 The Hershey–Chase Experiment 262
13.5 Transfection in Eukaryotic Cells 263
13.10 The Meselson–Stahl Experiment 269
14.1 One Gene, One Enzyme 283
14.5 Deciphering the Genetic Code 288
14.19 Testing the Signal 300
15.20 Gene Therapy 323
16.10 Expression of Specific Transcription Factors
Turns Fibroblasts into Neurons 337
17.6 Using Transposon Mutagenesis to Determine
the Minimal Genome 359
18.1 Recombinant DNA 374
19.16 Cloning a Plant 405
21.9 Sexual Selection in Action 435
21.17 A Heterozygote Mating Advantage 442
22.7 Testing the Accuracy of Phylogenetic Analysis 456
23.14 Flower Color Reinforces a Reproductive Barrier in
Phlox 478
24.4 Evolution in a Heterogeneous Environment 490
25.10 Atmospheric Oxygen Concentrations and
Body Size in Insects 513
26.14 What Is the Highest Temperature Compatible
with Life? 535

FIG. 27.7 The Role of Vacuoles in Ciliate Digestion 555
27.21 Can Corals Reacquire Dinoflagellate Endosymbionts
Lost to Bleaching? 565
28.17 Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations and the Evolution of
Megawphylls 584
29.14 The Effect of Stigma Retraction in Monkeyflowers 599
35.12 Manipulating Sucrose Transport from the Phloem 737
36.2 Is Nickel an Essential Element for Plant Growth? 742
37.6 The Darwins’ Phototropism Experiment 763
37.16 Sensitivity of Seeds to Red and Far-Red Light 772
38.12 Interrupting the Night 788
38.13 The Flowering Signal Moves from Leaf to Bud 789
39.6 Nicotine Is a Defense against Herbivores 803
39.15 A Molecular Response to Drought Stress 809
40.19 The Hypothalamus Regulates Body Temperature 829
41.5 Muscle Cells Can Produce a Hormone 839
41.6 A Diffusible Substance Triggers Molting 840
42.6 The Discovery of Adaptive Immunity 863
44.10 The Dorsal Lip Induces Embryonic Organization 912
44.12 Differentiation Can Be Due to Inhibition of Growth
Factors 913
45.16 Reducing Neuronal Inhibition May Enhance
Learning 939
46.17 A Rod Cell Responds to Light 960
47.10 What Does the Eye Tell the Brain? 976
48.8 Neurotransmitters Alter the Membrane Potential of
Smooth Muscle Cells 992
49.17 The Respiratory Control System Is Sensitive to
PCO 1020
2
50.9 Hot Fish, Cold Heart 1036
51.18 A Single-Gene Mutation Leads to Obesity in
Mice 1067
52.12 An Ammonium Transporter in the Renal Tubules? 1086
52.16 ADH Induces Insertion of Aquaporins into Plasma
Membranes 1089
53.9 The Costs of Defending a Territory 1104
53.11 Bluegill Sunfish Are Energy Maximizers 1106
53.17 A Time-Compensated Solar Compass 1111
55.12 Corridors Can Rescue Some Populations 1162
56.10 Are Ants and Acacias Mutualists? 1179
57.12 The Theory of Island Biogeography Can Be
Tested 1199
58.18 Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Concentration on
Nitrogen Fixation 1222
59.14

Species Richness Can Enhance Wetland
Restoration 1240

WORKING WITHDATA
WORKING WITHDATA:
CH. 3 Primary Structure Specifies Tertiary Structure 49
4

Could Biological Molecules Have Been Formed from
Chemicals Present in Earth’s Early Atmosphere? 71

CH. 30 Using Fungi to Study Environmental
Contamination 625
31 Reconstructing Animal Phylogeny 631

5

The Role of Microfilaments in Cell Movement 99

32 How Many Species of Insects Exist on Earth? 673

6

Rapid Diffusion of Membrane Proteins 110

35 Manipulating Sucrose Transport from the Phloem 737

7

The Discovery of a Second Messenger 134

36 Is Nickel an Essential Element for Plant Growth? 743

8

How Does an Herbicide Work? 160

37 The Darwins’ Phototropism Experiment 764

9

Experimental Demonstration of the
Chemiosmotic Mechanism 175

38 The Flowering Signal Moves from Leaf to Bud 789

10

Water Is the Source of the Oxygen Produced by
Photosynthesis 187

40 A Mammal’s BMR Is Proportional to Its
Body Size 827

10

Tracing the Pathway of CO2 195

11

Regulation of the Cell Cycle 209

41 Identifying a Hormone Secreted by
Exercised Muscles 839

12

Mendel’s Monohybrid Experiments 235

42 The Discovery of Adaptive Immunity 864

12

Some Alleles Do Not Assort Independently 248

43 Circadian Timing, Hormone Release, and Labor 895

13

The Meselson–Stahl Experiment 270

44 Nodal Flow and Inverted Organs 915

14

One Gene, One Enzyme 284

15

Gene Therapy for Parkinson’s Disease 324

45 Equilibrium Membrane Potential:
The Goldman Equation 931

16

Expression of Transcription Factors Turns
Fibroblasts into Neurons 338

46 Membrane Currents and Light Intensity
in Rod Cells 961

17

Using Transposon Mutagenesis to Determine
the Minimal Genome 360

47 Sleep and Learning 980

18 Recombinant DNA 375

39 Nicotine Is a Defense against Herbivores 803

48 Does Heat Cause Muscle Fatigue? 998

19

Cloning a Mammal 407

49 The Respiratory Control System Is Not Always
Regulated by PCO 1021

21

Do Heterozygous Males Have a Mating Advantage? 443

50 Warm Fish with Cold Hearts 1037

22

Does Phylogenetic Analysis Correctly Reconstruct
Evolutionary History? 457

51 Is Leptin a Satiety Signal? 1068

2

52 What Kidney Characteristics Determine Urine
Concentrating Ability? 1081

23

Does Flower Color Act as a Prezygotic
Isolating Mechanism? 479

53 Why Tolerate a Parasite? 1102

24

Detecting Convergence in Lysozyme Sequences 494

54 Walter Climate Diagrams 1138

25

The Effects of Oxygen Concentration on
Insect Body Size 514

55 Monitoring Tick Populations 1152

26

A Relationship between Temperature and
Growth in an Archaean 535

27

Uptake of Endosymbionts After Coral Bleaching 566

28

The Phylogeny of Land Plants 571

57 Latitudinal Gradients in Pitcher Plant
Communities 1197
58 How Does Molybdenum Concentration
Affect Nitrogen Fixation? 1222

FM_LIFE10E_V2.indd II

56 A Complex Species Interaction 1179

11/13/12 10:34 AM

RESEARCHTOOLS
RESEARCHTOOLS
FIG. 5.3 Looking at Cells 80

FIG. 24.1 Amino Acid Sequence Alignment 487

5.6

Cell Fractionation 85

35.8

6.4

Membrane Proteins Revealed by the Freeze-Fracture
Technique 108

Measuring the Pressure of Xylem Sap with
a Pressure Chamber 732

37.2

A Genetic Screen 760

13.21 The Polymerase Chain Reaction 278
15.13
15.18
18.3

Separating Fragments of DNA by Gel
Electrophoresis 316

An Immunoassay Allows Measurement of Small
Concentrations 852

45.5

Measuring the Membrane Potential 928

DNA Testing by Allele-Specific Oligonucleotide
Hybridization 321

45.7

Using the Nernst Equation 930

Selection for Recombinant DNA 378

49.9

Measuring Lung Ventilation 1012

55.2

The Mark–Recapture Method 1151

18.5 Constructing Libraries 379
18.6

41.19

Making a Knockout Mouse 381

45.8 Patch Clamping 931

B6

Descriptive Statistics for Quantitative Data 1258

19.17

Cloning a Mammal 407

B11 The t-Test 1262

21.10

Calculating Allele and Genotype Frequencies 436

B12

The Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test 1263

LIFE
The Science of Biology
TENTH EDITION

DAVID

SADAVA

The Claremont Colleges

DAVID M.

HILLIS

University of Texas

H. CRAIG

HELLER
Stanford University

MAY R.

BERENBAUM
University of Illinois

SINAUER

MACMILLAN

THE COVER

The sea slug Elysia crispata. This animal is able to carry out photosynthesis
using chloroplasts incorporated from the algae it feeds on (see back cover).
Photograph © Alex Mustard/Naturepl.com.
THE FRONTISPIECE

Red-crowned cranes, Grus japonensis, gather on a river in Hokkaido, Japan.
©Steve Bloom Images/Alamy.

LIFE: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition
Copyright © 2014 by Sinauer Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part without permission.

ADDRESS EDITORIAL CORRESPONDENCE TO:

Sinauer Associates, Inc., 23 Plumtree Road, Sunderland, MA 01375 U.S.A.
www.sinauer.com
publish@sinauer.com

ADDRESS ORDERS TO:

MPS / W. H. Freeman & Co., Order Dept., 16365 James Madison Highway,
U.S. Route 15, Gordonsville, VA 22942 U.S.A.
EXAMINATION COPY INFORMATION: 1-800-446-8923

Planet Friendly Publishing
Made in the United States
Printed on Recycled Paper
Text: 10%
Cover: 10%
Learn more: www.greenedition.org

Courier Corporation, the manufacturer
of this book, owns the Green Edition Trademark

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Life : the science of biology / David Sadava ... [et al.]. -- 10th ed.
p. cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4292-9864-3 (casebound) — 978-1-4641-4122-5 (pbk. : v. 1) —
ISBN 978-1-4641-4123-2 (pbk. : v. 2) — ISBN 978-1-4641-4124-9 (pbk. : v. 3)
1. Biology--Textbooks. I. Sadava, David E.
QH308.2.L565 2013
570--dc23
2012039164

Printed in U.S.A.
First Printing December 2012
The Courier Companies, Inc.

FM_LIFE10E_V2.indd VI

11/13/12 11:42 AM

To all the educators who have worked tirelessly
for quality biology education


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