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poster time study in adults with AD .pdf


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Title: PowerPoint 演示文稿
Author: Yushi Bai

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Time Perception and Related Cognitive Abilities in Adults with
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Traits
· Exam Number: Y3842538

Method (2/2)

Method (1/2)
Low-AC (N=8) High-AC (N=6)
21.63(2.13)
23.17(3.76)
0:8
2:4
7:1
4:2

• Low-AC = attention deficits group; High-AC = high
attention capacity group.
• The Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)
was adopted to screen participants’ attention.

Dissimilar condition

The circle bounces off As the circle hits the squares,
they move away or vanish
the squares

Result
• Data from time task were mainly analyzed by the three-way MANOVA (2 groups × 7 durations × 2 complexity conditions); independent t-test and correlation were
mainly adopted to analyze data from WM, inhibition and IQ tests.

a)

Low-AC
Group

1.4

High-AC
Group

1.3

1.2

1.1

1

0.9

0.8

0.7
3

4

5

6

7

8

9

Stimuli’s Durations(s)

• Interaction of group × duration (non-significant, F3.35, •
40.21 = 1.95, p = .131) on the direction of errors in the
time reproduction suggested that the Low-AC group
tended to more underestimate durations.
• Direction of errors = reproduced duration / actual
duration; >1 means overestimation, <1 means

underestimation.

b)

Basic
Condition
Dissimilar
Condition

2000
1900

c)

1800
1700
1600

1500
1400
1300
1200
1100

1000
Low WM

WM Ability

High WM


By entering WM scores into MANOVA as a
covariate, a significant interaction of complexity
× WM (F1, 10 = 8.06, p = .018) on participants’

size of errors in the time reproduction was
detected.
Size of errors = |reproduced duration - actual
duration|; larger value means large error size.

3000

2500

2000

1500

1000

500
2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

WM Scores (higher scores means better WM)

For correlation analysis, only one marginally significant
correlation between WM and participants’ size of errors
in the time reproduction was detected (r = .48, p = .084).
Non-significant main effects for group, complexity and
interaction of group × complexity in time reproduction, as
well as non-significant between group differences in WM,
Stop-it and IQ tests were found.

• This study detected that the low-AC group tended to slightly more underestimate durations; however, non-significant differences between two groups and two
complexity conditions in the time reproduction were found. These may be because the relatively short stimuli’s durations (compared with other time studies on
ADHD adults) and the difference between two conditions in this study may be insufficient to significantly influence participants’ reproduction of time.
• Among other cognitive assessments, this study detected that, in general, participants with better WM tended to make larger errors in the time reproduction. This
may be because subjects with better WM could capture more details of stimuli, and correspondingly they may have been inclined to reproduce longer durations
and thus made larger errors. However, based on the current data, it is difficult to form a comprehensive explanation for WM’s effects.
• Several limitations were existed in this study, such as the small sample size and the solo use of the self-report CAARS. Future studies are recommended to verify
this study’s results by improving above limitations. The effects of WM on time perception are also worthy of further investigation.

Reference





Basic condition

Discussion

Participants:
Age (years)
Gender (male: female)
Linguistics (English: Chinese)

Matrix reasoning test
Stop-it task
(Non-verbal IQ assessment)
(Inhibition assessment)
※ The time reproduction task mainly requires participants to separately
reproduce stimuli’s durations by pressing buttons after watching each stimulus.

※ Example of one pair of stimuli:

• Containing 28 pairs of visual stimuli.
• Each pair:
➢ had identical clock durations (3, 4, 5,
6, 7, 8, 9s)
➢ differed in the complexity conditions
(basic or dissimilar conditions)

Average size of errors in Time Reproduction (ms)

1. To explore whether adults with attention deficits
(AD) would have more imprecise performance in
time task.
2. To investigate whether more complex visual stimuli
in the time task would lead participants to
underestimate durations, and whether this tendency
would be more pronounced on adults with AD
3. To explore whether adults with AD would have
poorer performance on WM and inhibition tasks,
and whether those abilities would correlate with
their time perception performance.
※ Participants’ IQ levels were also monitored in this
study.

Stimuli in the time reproduction task

• Participants were required to complete the following tasks:
Symmetry-span task
Time Reproduction Task
(Visuospatial WM assessment)
(Time perception assessment)

Average size of errors in Time Reproduction (ms)

Aims of the current study:

Procedure

Average Direction of errors in Time Reproduction

Background
• The ADHD population may experience impaired time
perception (e.g. Toplak et al., 2003); however, many
related studies focused on ADHD children but
neglect the research of adults.
• Difficulties on attention, working memory (WM) or
inhibition in the ADHD population may be
responsible for their dysfunctional time perception,
as aforementioned abilities may be severed as
crucial components during time perception (Barkley,
1997; Grondin, 2010).
• The complexity of visual stimuli in time tasks may
also influence participants’ time perception,
evidenced by several time studies suggested that
when visual stimuli (animations) yielded more
variations, shorter duration estimations were made
(e.g. Liverence & Scholl, 2012).

Barkley, R. A. (1997). Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological bulletin, 121(1), 65.
Grondin, S. (2010). Timing and time perception: a review of recent behavioral and neuroscience findings and theoretical directions. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 72(3), 561-582.
Liverence, B. M., & Scholl, B. J. (2012). Discrete events as units of perceived time. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(3), 549.
Toplak, M., Rucklidge, J., Hetherington, R., John, S., & Tannock, R. (2003). Time perception deficits in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent
samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6), 888-903.

Acknowledgements
I am tremendously grateful for the assistance from my supervisor
Silvia P. Gennari, and thanks for each teammate’s hard work and
every subject’s participation.


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